stem strength and related traits in a doubled-haploid population of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 141: 1–9. J ones L, E nnos AR, and T urner SR. 2001. Cloning and characterization of irregular xylem4 (irx4): a severely lignin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis . The Plant Journal 26: 205–216. J ung H-JG. 2003. Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls. Phytochemistry 63: 543–549. J ung H, and C asler M. 2006. Maize stem tissues: cell wall concentration and composition during development. Crop
Lidija Begović, Jelena Ravlić, Hrvoje Lepeduš, Dunja Leljak-Levanić and Vera Cesar
Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Justyna Góraj, Kensuke Miyamoto, Junichi Ueda and Marian Saniewski
. New Phytol. 78: 579-591. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1977.tb02161.x. Hasenstein K.-H., Kaldewey H. 1984. Distribution and metabolism of IAA in relation to the growth of Helianthus hypocotyls. Bot. Gaz. 145: 163-169. DOI: 10.1086/337442. McKay M.J., Ross J.J., Lawrence N.L., Cramp R.E., Beveridge C.A., Reid J.B. 1994. Control of internode length in Pisum sativum . Further evidence for the involvement of indole-3-acetic acid. Plant Physiol. 106: 1521-1526. DOI: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1521. Miyamoto K., Kamisaka S. 1988
Junichi Ueda, Justyna Góraj, Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak and Kensuke Miyamoto
E., Hobbie L., Brown D., Bernasconi P., Turner J., Muday G., Estelle M. 1997. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar transport and diverse morphological defects. PLANT CELL 9: 745-757. Saniewski M., de Munk W.J. 1981. Hormonal control of shoot elongation in tulips. SCI. HORT., 5: 363-372. Saniewski M., Góraj J., Węgrzynowicz- Lesiak E., Okubo H., Miyamoto K., Ueda J. 2010. Different growth of excised and intact fourth internode after removal of the flower bud
Elżbieta Dmyterko and Arkadiusz Bruchwald
Model rozwoju pędu wierzchołkowego i jego ugałęzienia u dojrzałej brzozy omszonej (Betula pubescens Ehrh.)
Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec
Cereal straw is an important biomass source in Europe. This work assessed: 1) the morphological and energetic characteristics of culms of spring and winter cereals, 2) the energy deposited in the different aboveground parts of cereals, 3) losses of energy due to different cutting heights. The straw of winter and spring cereals was collected from arable fields during the seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in southern Poland. Detailed biometric measurements of culms and internodes were performed. The losses of straw biomass and energy were assessed during simulation of cutting the culm at different heights, up to 50 cm. Longer and heavier culms were developed by winter wheat and triticale and oat. Cutting of straw up to 10 cm did not lead to significant losses in straw yield. The total amount of energy in the culms was as follows: triticale > winter wheat > oat > spring wheat > winter barley > spring barley. Cutting the culms above 20 cm led to significant differences in terms of biomass energy between cereal species. The smallest losses of energy were recorded for spring and winter barley. Oat and barley accumulated the highest energy in grains.
Danuta Packa, Marian Wiwart, Elżbieta Suchowilska and Teresa Bieńkowska
The cross-sections of first and second internodes were analyzed under a light and fluorescence microscopes in six varieties of Triticum spelta, two varieties of T. polonicum, and one variety of T. aestivum. The morphometric parameters of stem cross-sections were measured. The analyzed wheats were characterized by significant differences in traits associated with lodging resistance ie: internode diameter, lumen diameter, stem wall thickness, mechanical layer thickness, area of transverse section, and area of lumen for the first and second internode and between the internodes. In all varieties, the values of internode diameter, lumen diameter, area of transverse section and area of lumen were higher for the second internode than for the first internode, whereas the reverse was reported for stem wall thickness and mechanical layer thickness The results of the principal component analysis and section modulus values revealed similarities between spring spelt Wirtas and Rubinas and between common wheat Kontesa and winter spelt Poeme and Epanis. The number of large vascular bundles varied across the studied varieties. The average number of vascular bundles in common wheat Kontesa was significantly higher than in spring spelt Rubinas and Wirtas and significantly lower than in Polish wheat Pol-3 and winter spelt Epanis and Poeme.
A. Nilgün Atay and Fatma Koyuncu
Growth retardants have great potential to balance between vegetative and reproductive growth. To assess the effects of prohexadione-calcium (Pro-Ca, Regalis) on reproductive and vegetative growth, return bloom, fruit set, and also fruit quality in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple grafted on M.9 rootstock, an experiment was performed during 2010-2012. The applications of 125 mg dm-3 Pro-Ca on the same trees in each year resulted in a 40-43% shoot length reducing. Internodes length decreased with Pro-Ca at about 30%, while total node number was unaffected. Results indicate that Pro-Ca applications have no effects on tree trunk growth, flowering, yield, fruit set and development. Pro-Ca also didn’t have any negative impact on fruit quality during the three consecutive years. Moreover, Pro-Ca resulted in higher fruit size compared to control in the third year of trial. The results of this experiment clearly suggest that fruit growers can use Pro- Ca for the control of vegetative growth without having any negative effects on fruit quality and yield parameters. Once a full canopy has been achieved, annual shoot growth can be suppressed in the range of 20 to 30 cm with 125 mg dm-3 Pro-Ca treatment in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees.
Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Marian Saniewski, Justyna Góraj, Marcin Horbowicz, Kensuke Miyamoto and Junichi Ueda
-205. Rutter J.C., Johnson W.R., Wilmer C.W. 1977. Free sugars and organic acid in the leaves of various plant species and their compartmentation between the tissues. J. EXPER. BOT. 28: 1019-1028. Saniewski M., de Munk W.J. 1981. Hormonal control of shoot elongation in tulips. SCIENTIA HORT. 5: 363-372. Saniewski M., Góraj J., Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak E., Okubo H., Miyamoto K., Ueda J. 2010. Different growth of excised and intact fourth internode after removal of the flower bud in growing tulips: Focus and auxin action. J. FRUIT ORNAM. PLANT RES
Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi and Asghar Ebadi Segherloo
Variation of traits is a primary need of any plant breeding effort that involves the natural evolution and causes sustainable crop production under different environments. Fifty six bread wheat genotypes grown during the growing season of 2012/2013 were evaluated for variability characteristics for eighteen traits i.e., stem diameter, plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, tiller number, internode length, peduncle length, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain number, awn length, grain diameter, grain length, number of days to flowering, thousand seed weight and grain yield. Significant differences were observed for all the traits studied, indicating a considerable amount of variation among wheat genotypes for each trait. The estimates of the coefficient of variation (CV) were high for grain yield and number of tillers per plant. Spike length varied from 8.95 in G28 to 4.74 in G40, while genotype G20 had the maximum floret number (19). According to thousand seed weight, genotype G55 had the maximum thousand seed weight (45.57 g) and genotype G4 had the maximum grain yield performance (6936.3 kg ha-1). The information on diversity among the agro-morphological traits of the studied wheat genotypes will be helpful to plant breeders in constructing their breeding materials and implementing selection strategies.
Melwyn D'Cunha and Kandikere Sridhar
Micropropagation of the wild legume Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. from coastal sand dunes
The wild legume Canavalia rosea (known in India as C. maritima) grows on coastal sand dunes of Southwest India. Anthers and 8 other explant types of this species (tender pods, cotyledons of ripened beans, cotyledons of germinated dry seeds, hypocotyls, young shoot buds, nodes, internodes, and roots) were used for in vitro culture. Among them, cotyledons and hypocotyls of germinated dry seeds showed a positive response. Friable callus production was seen within 4 weeks at the cut ends of cotyledon explants in MS medium fortifed with 1 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Cotyledon explants of seedlings also showed shoot bud induction in MS medium with 0.5 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Increased shoot bud induction was seen at elevated concentrations of hormones (7-27%). Hypocotyls inserted upside down on the medium with 1 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP, gave rise to leafy shoots within 4 weeks. Solitary or multiple somatic embryos emerged from the 10 week-old calli of cotyledons supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Secondary embryos were also induced in some of the somatic embryos. Hypocotyls excised from 3-5-day-old seedlings in MS medium at low concentrations of auxins, produced roots within 3 weeks. The stem cuttings treated with IBA (0.25 mg L-1) increased the percentage of rooting response. Conventional methods of propagation of C. rosea through seeds may fail due to seed dormancy and mortality of the seedlings under the hostile conditions of coastal sand dunes, thus in vitro and ex vitro culture and hardening techniques may be feasible for rehabilitation. Moreover, such cultured tissues may serve for extraction of secondary metabolites.