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G. R. Koerber and T. Hancock

Abstract

A naturally occurring putative hybrid between Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell and Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell called Green Box tolerates saline conditions of the River Murray floodplains better than E. largiflorens. Revegetation strategies utilizing seedlings of Green Box have had limited success because only a few are Green Box and the majority are throw backs to E. gracilis and E. largiflorens. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify traits characteristic of Green Box and AFLP markers associated with the traits enabling selection at the seedling stage. This was done by non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to test for statistically significant associations between morphological and physiological traits with 232 AFLP markers from 9 primer combinations. OVERALS with all markers produced 1st and 2nd dimensions accounting for 80 and 74% of variation respectively. Green Box plants were placed intermediate between E. gracillis and E. largiflorens according to leaf colour, gloss and nitrogen with component loadings (lc) of 0.340, 0.615 and 0.294 respectively. A second approach of simple linear regression of morphological and physiological traits against all 232 AFLP markers singled out 17 with significance P<0.05. Thirteen of these were also identified by OVERALS. Four occurred with high frequency in Green Box and E. largiflorens distinguishing them from E. gracilis. In order to separate Green Box and E. largiflorens, the segregation of a further three markers can be used to align Green Box with E. gracilis. Therefore, the segregation of 7 markers can be utilized to select Green Box.

Open access

B. Karpaga Raja Sundari and M. Ghosh Dasgupta

Abstract

Reference genes are generally used as endogenous normalization factor for relative quantification of target genes in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present work aimed at identifying suitable reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in tissues of Eucalyptus tereticornis. The expression levels of housekeeping genes like Actin (EtAct2), Isocitrate dehy - drogenase (EtIDH), ribosomal RNA (Et18s rRNA), SAND family protein (EtSAND), Histone protein (EtH2B), α-Tubulin (EtTUB), and eukaryotic initiation factor (EteIF4B) were studied to characterize their normalization stability in different tissues including young leaves, internodes, developing and mature xylem. The expression level of these genes was analyzed using different algorithms like geNorm, NormFinder and Best- Keeper. Among the seven reference genes analyzed, EtAct2 was expressed with less variance and was found to be the most stable reference gene across different tissues using all the three programs, while the least stable gene identified was EtH2B. Further, the normalization efficiency of the reference genes were assessed to predict the expression levels of three primary cell wall specific cellulose synthase transcripts (EtCesAs) in E. tereticornis tissues. The relative expression of EtCesA4, EtCesA5 and EtCesA6 was determined to be 3-19 fold higher in leaf and internode tissues when compared to developing and mature xylem tissues. This study will allow accurate normalization of qRT-PCR experiments across different tissues in E. tereticornis for future genomic research in this tropical eucalypt species.

Open access

G. Prabhakara Rao, K. Suma, J. Madhavan and Y. A. Varghese

Abstract

Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a native of the Amazon forests of South America, is the chief source of natural rubber in the world. With the objective of broadening the original gene pool collected by Sir Henry Wickham in 1876, the International Rubber Research and Development Board (IRRDB) made a large collection of wild germplasm from Acre, Rondonia and Mato Grosso states of Brazil in 1981, which was distributed to various member countries including India for conservation and evaluation. In the present study, variability was assessed in a set of 195 Hevea accessions belonging to the wild gene pool in India, using 22 characterization descriptors and eight quantitative growth characters in the juvenile stage. The Shannon-Weaver diversity indices worked out for each of the 22 qualitative traits indicated a high level of diversity in the collection. The range of variation for quantitative traits viz., plant height (0.43 to 3.16 m), basal diameter (0.81 to 2.52 cm), number of whorls (1.23 to 5.48), inter-node length (4.11 to 45.26 cm), number of leaves (11.44 to 91.26), single leaf area (80.22 to 223.57 cm2), total leaf area (2356.00 to 14660.50 cm2) and leaf area index (0.24 to 1.47), also represented wide variability in the collection. The accessions were ranked for overall performance and top 10% were selected for early growth vigour. The high level of variability observed in this germplasm indicates its potential use in crop improvement programmes and for broadening the genetic base of Hevea.

Open access

M. Ivković, H. Wu and S. Kumar

-21, Mississippi State, MS. p 132-139. BURDON, R. D. (1990): Implications of non-linear economic weights for breeding. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79(1): 65-71. BYRAM, T. D., J. H. MYSZEWSKI, D. P. GWAZE and W. J. LOWE (2005): Improving wood quality in the western gulf forest tree improvement program: the problem of multiple breeding objectives. Tree Genetics and Genomes 1: 85-92. CARSON M. J. (1988): Long-internode or multinodal radiata pine? - a financial analysis. FRI Bulletin No. 115, Forest Research Institute, New Zealand