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Keryn Walshe

Abstract

Koonalda Cave is located on the Nullarbor Plain of South Australia and is one of 17 deep karst caves in this region. In 2014, the cave was listed as a National Heritage Place in recognition of its significant archaeological and cultural heritage features. It In order to understand the antiquity of and complex human activity in this site a range of dating methods have been applied including typologic, radiometric and luminescence. Each has been challenged and the chronology of this highly significant site has relied on contextual data from other sites. This paper presents an overview of the archaeology recorded at Koonalda Cave, the issues in dating sites in deep karst systems and emphasises the urgent need to resolve these issues so that a reliable chronology can be presented for Koonalda Cave.

Open access

Urszula Hara

Abstract

The loose, small zooecia of the cheilostome bryozoans have been discovered in the lowermost part of the LaMeseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island. They systemati− cally include the representatives of Beanidae Canu et Bassler, Catenicellidae Busk, Savi− gnyellidae Levinsen, and Calwelliidae MacGillivray. The bryozoan assemblage is comprised of separate, small−sized internal moulds dominated by distinct, boat−shaped zooecia belonging to Beania, scarce, unizooidal internodes tentatively included into a ditaxiporine catenicellid ?Vasignyella, and representative of the family Savignyellidae. A few branched segments composed of multiserial zooecia arranged back to back were tentatively incorporated into ?Malakosaria. Beania, marks the oldest fossil record, whereas representatives of Savignyelli− dae along with ditaxiporine catenicellid and ?Malakosaria are for the first time reported from Antarctica. The relationship between the taxonomic composition, colony growth−patterns rep− resented by membraniporiform/petraliform, catenicelliform and cellariform, along with asso− ciated biota and sedimentary structures of the LaMeseta Formation implies nearshore environ− ment, with considerable wave action, and warm climatic conditions.

Open access

Piotr Owczarek and Magdalena Opała

, the first methodological procedure for the den-droecological dwarf shrub analysis was provided by Bär et al . (2006) . Bär et al . (2006 , 2007 ) constructed the first ring width chronologies of alpine dwarf shrub black crowberry ( Empetrum hermaphroditum L.) from the Norwegian part of the Scandinavian Mountains. Rayback and Henry (2005) as well as Weijers et al . (2010 , 2012 ) used growth increments from the internode length of white Arctic mountain heather ( Cassiope tetragona L.) as the climate proxy records. Of these, Weijers et al . (2012

Open access

Anna Figas, Anetta Siwik-Ziomek and Roman Rolbiecki

Abstract

Effect of irrigation on some growth parameters of cup plant and dehydrogenase activity in soil. A field experiment carried out in two vegetation seasons in the years 2012 and 2013 on very light soil at Kruszyn Krajeński, in the vicinity of Bydgoszcz (Poland). Investigation of the influence of drip irrigation on some growth parameters of three- and four-year-old cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and on the activity of dehydrogenase participating at cycling in soil was examined. The cup plants were cultivated from the micropropagation seedlings. Experiments were performed as one factorial in four replications. The factor of the experiment was the following variants: O - without irrigation (control plots), D - with drip irrigation. Drip irrigation was scheduled according to tensiometers indications. Irrigation significantly increase the height of the plants, the length of internode, the thickness of the stalk, the fresh weight of the shoots, and the number of the leaves and flowers. Irrigation also increased the transpiration leaf area and the dry matter content. In the soil sampled under cup plant in 2012 there was found a greater activity of dehydrogenases in soil derived from non-irrigated objects.