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Khalid M. El-Say, Tarek A. Ahmed, Maged F. Abdelbary, Bahaa E. Ali, Bader M. Aljaeid and Ahmed S. Zidan

.06.017. 12. J . G. Osorio and F. J. Muzzio, Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 39 (2013) 1464-1475; DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2012.728227. 13. D . Otter, Milk: Physical and Chemical Properties, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Ed. B. Caballero, L. C. Trugo, P. M. Finglas), 2nd ed., Academic Press, Oxford 2003, pp. 3957-3963. 14. M. B. Almeida, J. A. Almeida, M. E. Moreira and F. R. Novak, Adequacy of human milk viscosity to respond to infants with dysphagia: Experimental

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J. Slažneva, L. Kovács and M. Kuželová

Off-label drug use among hospitalized children: identifying extent and nature

Objective of the study was to determine the extent and nature of medicinal products used off-label in hospitalized children and to highlight the therapeutic areas with the highest need. Over a 4 week period, data about prescribed drugs to patients under 18 years of age at two paediatric wards in Bratislava (Unit for Infants and Unit for Older Children) were recorded and the drug-licensing status according to valid Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) was identified. In total, 206 medicinal products containing 70 different generic substances were given to 49 paediatric patients at the Unit for Infants. Of these, 22% were evaluated as off-label. The highest rates were established among the drugs used for diseases of respiratory system and diseases of digestive system. The 68 children had been given at the Unit for Older Children 267 medicinal products resulting in 97 generic substances. In 15.7% of cases medicines were used in off-label manner, mainly due to unapproved paediatric indication and age. This pilot study provided a preliminary survey on drugs administered off-label to paediatric patients in Slovak Republic.

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Blandina Bernal-Morales, Gabriel Guillén-Ruiz, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa and Carlos M. Contreras

REFERENCES 1. M. Bourin, Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective, Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 17 (2015) 295–303. 2. D. A. Lynn and G. R. Brown, The ontogeny of anxiety-like behavior in rats from adolescence to adulthood, Dev. Psychobiol. 52 (2010) 731–739; https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20468 3. K. S. Smith and J. I. Morrell, Comparison of infant and adult rats in exploratory activity, diurnal patterns, and responses to novel and anxiety-provoking environments, Behav. Neurosci . 121 (2007) 449–461; https

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S. Dluholucký and M. Knapková

Regular newborn screening enables detection of severe disorders in their asymptomatic early phase and thus allows the start of early treatment and prevention of long-term sequelae. This concept is in full accordance with care for so called rare diseases. Recently, the national NBS in Europe are under the supervision of ISNS and EUNENBS to ensure the quality control and unified approach. NBS in Slovak Republic has been provided for the whole population as a governmentally guaranteed activity since 1985. The first screened disorder was congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Patients have been screened for phenylketonuria (PKU) since 1995, for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) since 2003, and for cystic fibrosis (CF) since 2009. The organizational network of NBS ensures more than 98% coverage of the population of newborns. Between 1985 and 2011, the newborn screening centre (NSC SK) examined 3,239 068 newborn infants and confirmed 413 cases of CH (1: 4 128), 157 cases of PKU (1:5 908), 51 cases of CAH (1:8 677) and 26 CF cases (1:6 315). In 2012, the expanded NBS (ENBS) was introduced. It used tandem mass spectrometry (ms/ms) to detect other nine hereditary metabolic disorders (HMDs), defect of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, carnitine disorders, and organic acidurias. Four month pilot study revealed 12 positive cases in 25 000 screened newborns as well as other HMDs not included in the screening - in “peripheral view” of ms/ms. Since 1. January, ENBS has been performed as a regular NBS in the whole population. In January, fifteen new cases were detected (prevalence even 1:763).

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Svjetlana Luterotti, Tončica Kordić and Slavica Dodig

References P. J. Parsons and F. Barbosa, Jr., Atomic spectrometry and trends in clinical laboratory medicine, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: At. Spectr.   62 (2007) 992-1003; DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2007.03.007. N. Weinstock and M. Uhlemann, Automated determination of copper in undiluted serum by atomic-absorption spectroscopy, Clin. Chem.   27 (1981) 1438-1440. T. Makino and K. Takahara, Direct determination of plasma copper and zinc in infants by atomic absorption with discrete

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Ji-Young Kim, Sang-Suk Kim, Tae-Heon Oh, Jong Baik, Gwanpil Song, Nam Lee and Chang-Gu Hyun

References P. Minodier, P. Pommier, E. Moulène, K. Retornaz, N. Prost and L. Deharo, Star anise poisoning in infants, Arch. Pediatr . 10 (2003) 619-621; DOI: 10.1016/S0929-693X(03)00274-4. H. Y. Kim and J. H. Oh, Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem . 63 (1999) 184-188; DOI: 10.1271/bbb.63.184. H. Y. Kim and K. Kim, Protein glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities of some plant extracts in vitro, J. Agric

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Esam Bakir, Mohamed Gouda, Ahmed Alnajjar and Waleed E. Boraie

nanoparticles by laser ablation in toluene: quenching and recovery of the surface plasmon absorption, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 23125–23128; https://doi.org/10.1021/jp055783v 11. K. Wagers, T. Chui and S. Adem, Effect of pH on the stability of gold nanoparticles and their application for melamine detection in infant formula, IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 7 (2014) 15–20; https://doi.org/10.9790/5736-07821520 12. R. Pamies, J. G. H. Cifre, V. F. Espín, M. Collado-González, F. G. D. Baños and J. G. de la Torre, Aggregation behaviour of gold nanoparticles in saline

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Lourdes A. Vega Rasgado, Guillermo Ceballos Reyes and Fernando Vega Díaz

hyperexcitability associated with glutamate dehydrogenase gain of function mutations, J. Pediatr. 146 (2005) 388-394; DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.10.040. 13. S . Balasubramaniam, R. Kapoor, J. H. Yeow, P. G. Lim, S. Flanagan, S. Ellard and K. Hussain, Biochemical evaluation of an infant with hypoglycemia resulting from a novel de novo mutation of the GLUD1 gene and hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome, J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 24 (2011) 573-577. 14. N . Bahi-Buisson, E. Roze, C. Dionisi, F. Escande, V. Valayannopoulos, F. Feillet, C

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Svjetlana Luterotti, Tončica Vukman Kordić and Slavica Dodig

determination of copper in undiluted serum by atomic-absorption spectroscopy, Clin. Chem. 27 (1981) 1438–1440. 4. T. Makino and K. Takahara, Direct determination of plasma copper and zinc in infants by atomic absorption with discrete nebulization, Clin. Chem . 27 (1981) 1445–1447. 5. C. Terrés-Martos, M. Navarro-Alarcón, F. Martín-Lagos, H. L. G. de la Serrana and M. C. López-Martínez, Determination of copper levels in serum of healthy subjects by atomic absorption spectrometry, Sci. Total Environ . 198 (1997) 97–103; DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(97)05448-X

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M. Sasváriová, B. Tyukos-Kaprinay, L. Salvaras, K. Belovičová, E. Bögi, V. Knezl, M. Barteková, T. Stankovičová and M. Dubovický

-E, Remmers FO, Läer S. Phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I through 5-HT4 receptors in the isolated human atrium. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;379(4):349-359. [14] Hanley GE and Oberlander TF. The effect of perinatal exposures on the infant: antidepressants and depression. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28(1):37-48. [15] Howell C, Wilson AD, Waring WS. Cardiovascular toxicity due to venlafaxine poisoning in adults: a review of 235 consecutive cases. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;64(2):192-197. [16] Huang Y, Xu H, Li H, Yang