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Daniela Iacob, Angela Butnariu, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuţa, Gabriel Samaşca, Diana Deleanu and Iulia Lupan

REFERENCES 1. BUTNARIU A., IANCU M., SAMASCA G., CHIRA M., LUPAN I. Changes in NT-proBNP in young children with congenital heart malformations. LabMedicine 2014; 45 :43-47. 2. PRONTERA C., ZUCCHELLI G.C., VITTORINI S., STORTI S., EMDIN M., CLERICO A. Comparison between analytical performances of polyclonal and monoclonal electrochemiluminescence immunoassays for NT-proBNP . Clin Chim Acta 2009; 400 :70-73. 3. ROSS R.D., BOLLINGER R.O., PINSKY W.W. Grading the severity of congestive heart failure in infants. Pediatr Cardiol 1992; 13 :72

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Angela Butnariu, Camelia Zamfir, Mihaela Iancu, Daniela Iacob, G. Samasca and Iulia Lupan

long axis function. Heart. 1999; 81:111-3. 10. EIDEM BW, MCMAHON CJ, AYRES NA. Impact of chronic left ventricular preload and afterload on Doppler tissue imaging velocities; a study in congenital heart disease. J Am Soc Echocardiog. 2005; 18:830-8. 11. FROMMELT PC, BALLWEG JA, WHITSTONE BN. Usefulness of Doppler tissue imaging analysis of tricuspid annular motion for determination of right ventricular function in normal infants and children. Am J Cardiol. 2002; 89:610-3. 12. LINDSTROM L, WRANNE B. Pulsed tissue doppler

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Monavar Gilanifar and Moloud Aghajani Delavar

. 2012; 25 (2):14-18. 4. YURUMEZ E., AKCA OF., UGUR C., USLU RI., KILIC BG. Mothers’ alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study . Int J Psychiatry ClinPract. 2014; 18 (3):190-6. 5. FUKUNISHI I., KAWAMURA N., ISHIKAWA T., AGO Y., SEI H., MORITA Y., et al . Mothers’ low care in the development of alexithymia: a preliminary study in Japanese college students . Psychological reports. 1997; 80 (1):143-6. 6. BONNET A., BRÉJARD V., PASQUIER A., PEDINIELLI JL

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Winnie Wan-Yin Yeung and Chak-Sing Lau

option for rheumatic diseases. There are various sources of MSCs. They can be obtained from both infant and adult tissues. Infant tissues mainly include umbilical cord (UC) tissues, cord blood cells and developing tooth buds of the mandibular third molar. MSCs can be derived from adult tissues as well, most commonly from the bone marrow, others from the umbilical cord, placenta, adipose tissue, muscles, peripheral blood, synovial fluid and articular cartilages. Infant tissues MSCs contain more multipotent primitive MSCs compared with adult tissues. They are able to

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Larisa Pinte and Cristian Băicuș

infant of a diabetic mother. Virchows Arch. A. Pathol. Anat. Histol. 1978; 380 (4):341–8 39. KEITH, R.G., KESHAVJEE, S.H., KERENYI, N.R. Neuropathology of chronic pancreatitis in humans. Can. J. Surg. 1985; 28 (3):207–11 40. MADHOTRA, R., ELOUBEIDI, M.A., CUNNINGHAM, J.T., LEWIN, D., HOFFMAN, B. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis masquerading as ampullary adenoma. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2002; 34 (3):240–2 41. MANOHAR, M., VERMA, A.K., VENKATESHAIAH, S.U., SANDERS, N.L., MISHRA, A. Pathogenic mechanisms of pancreatitis. World J. Gastrointest

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Stella Pui Yan Wong, Cheuk Wan Yim, Tin Lok Lai, Lydia Wai Yee Chan and Archie Bill Lo

1 Case Report Ms. U is a 39-year-old Japanese lady, who had a strong family predisposition to rheumatic conditions. Her son had cutaneous polyarthritis nodosa (PAN), diagnosed at the age of 11 and her daughter had Kawasaki disease at one year old. Ms. U was told to have colitis as an infant and have hepatitis B and C during prenatal check-up. She had suffered from recurrent mild episodes of aphthous ulcers for years but otherwise, she enjoyed good health. In December 2013, Ms. U complained of bilateral foot pain and consulted a private rheumatologist

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Chi Kit Au, Tin Lok Lai and Cheuk Wan Yim

chemical, that is, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) [ 1 ]. Ample evidence demonstrated that TMAO contributed to cardiovascular events in RA [ 1 ]. 3 Human gut microbiota and dysbiosis Human intestinal tract is sterile at the time of the birth, but intestinal colonization starts soon after delivery. It takes about two years for the well-establishment of microbiota colonization [ 4 ]. Infants who have contact with maternal vaginal and perineal flora during vaginal delivery and those who have exposed to skin flora during caesarian section will have different composition

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Philip H. Li and Chak-Sing Lau

antibody deficiency is available and recommendations vary; most authors generally agree to Ig replacement in symptomatic HG with recurrent infections, while others recommend specific IgG cut-offs, additional criteria such as impaired vaccine responses or only in patients with inadequate response to prophylactic antibiotics. [ 47 - 50 ] It has even been suggested that Ig replacement should be given to all infants and very young children who are treated with rituximab [ 48 ]. The outcome after Ig replacement or related adverse effects have not been well reported and target