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Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

, Farlow B, Lantos JD. An infant with trisomy 18 and a ventricular septal defect. Pediatrics 2011; 127(4):754-59. 10. Hazan F, Aykut A, Unalp A, Mese T, Unal N, Onay H, Ozkinay F. Ventricular septal defect in Crouzon Syndrome: case report. Genet Couns 2012; 23(4):519-522. 11. Postma AV, van Engelen K, van de Meerakker J, Rahman T, Probst S, Baars MJ, Bauer U, Pickardt T, Sperling SR, Berger F, Moorman AF, Mulder BJ, Thierfelder L, Keavney B, Goodship J, Klaassen S. Mutations in the sarcomere gene MYH7 in Ebstein anomaly. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2011; 4(1): 43

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Abed Al Nasser Assi


Reduction of the patient’s received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Carla Marinelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

References 1. Ferencz C, Loffredo CA, Correa–Villasenor A. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors of Major Cardiovascular Malformations: The Baltimore–Washington Infant Study 1981–1989 Armonk, New York: Futura Publishing Co. 2. Blount SG, Komesu S, McCord MC. Asymptomatic isolated valvular pulmonary stenosis; diagnosis by clinical methods. N Engl J Med 1953; 248: 5-11 3. Hungate RG, Newman B, Meza MP. Left mainstem bronchial narrowing: a vascular compression syndrome? Evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging Pediatr Radiol 1998; 28(7): 527

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Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alessandra Zulian, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

coarctation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 20(3): 750-51. 8. Salahuddin N, Wilson AD, Rao PS. An unusual presentation of coarctation of the aorta in infancy: role of balloon angioplasty in the critically ill infant. Am Heart J 1991; 122(6): 1772-75. 9. Boon AR, Roberts DF. A family study of coarctation of the aorta. Journal of Medical Genetics 1976; 13(6): 420-33. 10. Reller MD, Strickland MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta, 1998-2005. J Pediatr 2008; 153(6): 807-13. 11. Hoffman JI

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Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

References 1. Craig B. Atrioventricular septal defect: from fetus to adult. Heart 2006; 92(12): 1879-85. 2. Ferencz C, Boughman JA, Neill CA, Brenner JI, Perry LW. Congenital cardiovascular malformations: questions on inheritance. Baltimore-Washington Infant Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14(3): 756-63. 3. Feldt RH, O’Connell EJ, Stickler GB, Weidman WH. Etiologic factors in congenital heart disease. Am J Dis Child 1968; 115(5): 552-556. 4. Disegni E, Pierpont ME, Bass JL, Kaplinsky E. Two-dimensional echocardiography in detection of

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Lourdes M. Del Rosso and Raffaele Ferri

, Harris MA, Nyunt O, Suresh S. Central sleep-disordered breathing and the effects of oxygen therapy in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98(8):592-595. 33. Gozal D, Arens R, Omlin KJ, Ward SL, Keens TG. Absent peripheral chemosensitivity in Prader-Willi syndrome. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994;77(5):2231-2236. 34. Arens R, Gozal D, Burrell BC, et al. Arousal and cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia in Prader-Willi syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(1):283-287. 35. Urquhart DS, Gulliver T

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Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

: Genetics, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Pediatr Neonatol 2017; 58(3): 211-215. 9. Correa-Villaseñor A, Ferencz C, Neill CA, Wilson PD, Boughman JA. Ebstein’s malformation of the tricuspid valve: genetic and environmental factors. The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study Group. Teratology 1994; 50(2): 137-47. 10. Andelfinger GU. Human Genetics of Ebstein Anomaly. In: Rickert-Sperling S., Kelly R., Driscoll D. (eds) Congenital Heart Diseases: The Broken Heart. Springer, Vienna 2016. 11. Celermajer DS, Bull C, Till JA, Cullen S, Vassillikos VP

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Danuta Plotnikava, Anastasiya Sidarenka and Galina Novik

resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006; 254(2): 226-31. 14. Aminov RI, Mackie RI. Evolution and ecology of antibiotic resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007; 271(2): 147-61. 15. Clemente JC, Ursell LK, Parfrey LW, Knight R. The impact of the gut microbiota on human health: an integrative view. Cell 2012; 148(6): 1258-70. 16. Gueimonde M, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Presence of specific antibiotic (tet) resistance genes in infant faecal microbiota. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2006; 48(1): 21-5. 17. Hu Y

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Dindar S. Bari, Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy and Ørjan G. Martinsen

of felt pain strength is a key factor for successful pain management during surgery and other clinical procedures. Presently, most of the pain scoring systems used in clinical practice rely on patient cooperation and attentiveness. However, in some cases, for example in unconscious, confused, uncooperative patients, or in the case for infants, questioning is impossible. As a result, pain is usually poorly evaluated and inadequately managed. Therefore, a more practical, patient-independent method for this purpose is highly desirable. As pain provokes a sympathetic