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Antoni Różalski, Agnieszka Torzewska, Magdalena Moryl, Iwona Kwil, Agnieszka Maszewska, Kinga Ostrowska, Dominika Drzewiecka, Agnieszka Zabłotni, Agata Palusiak, Małgorzata Siwińska and Paweł Staçzek


The genus Proteus belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, where it is placed in the tribe Proteeae, together with the genera Morganella and Providencia. Currently, the genus Proteus consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri, P. hauseri and P. myxofaciens, as well as three unnamed Proteus genomospecies. The most defining characteristic of Proteus bacteria is a swarming phenomenon, a multicellular differentiation process of short rods to elongated swarmer cells. It allows population of bacteria to migrate on solid surface. Proteus bacteria inhabit the environment and are also present in the intestines of humans and animals. These microorganisms under favorable conditions cause a number of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, meningitis in neonates or infants and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, Proteus is known as a bacterial opportunistic pathogen. It causes complicated UTIs with a higher frequency, compared to other uropathogens. Proteus infections are accompanied by a formation of urinary stones, containing struvite and carbonate apatite. The virulence of Proteus rods has been related to several factors including fimbriae, flagella, enzymes (urease - hydrolyzing urea to CO2 and NH3, proteases degrading antibodies, tissue matrix proteins and proteins of the complement system), iron acqusition systems and toxins: hemolysins, Proteus toxin agglutinin (Pta), as well as an endotoxin - lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Proteus rods form biofilm, particularly on the surface of urinary catheters, which can lead to serious consequences for patients. In this review we present factors involved in the regulation of swarming phenomenon, discuss the role of particular pathogenic features of Proteus spp., and characterize biofilm formation by these bacteria.

Open access

Joanna Wojtacka, Beata Wysok, Zbigniew Lipiński, Małgorzata Gomółka-Pawlicka, Helena Rybak-Chmielewska and Agnieszka Wiszniewska-Łaszczych

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Marc Pluch, Carina Siutz and Eva Millesi

-21. GUERRA R.F. and Nunes C.R. d.O. 2001: Effects of litter size on maternal care, body weight and infant development in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Behavioural Processes. 55: 127-142. HUBER S., HOFFMANN I.E., MILLESI E., DITTAMI J. and ARNOLD W. 2001: Explaining the seasonal decline in litter size in European ground squirrels. Ecography. 24: 205-211. HUFNAGL S., FRANCESCHINI-ZINK C. and MILLESI E. 2011a: Seasonal constraints and reproductive performance in female Common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus).Mammalian Biology. 76: 124

Open access

Metin Guldas

intended to manage the growth of probiotic and pathogenic gut bacteria. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43 (1), 2257-2267. Rudnicka, K., Kwiatkowska, P., Gajewski, A., Chmiela, M. (2015). Honey as a reservoir of C. botulinum and a risk factor for infant botulism. Postepy Mikrobiologii, 54 (2), 184-194. Shah, N. P. (2000). Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in Dairy food. Journal of Dairy Science , 83 (4), 894-907. Shin, H. S. & Ustunol, Z. (2005). Carbohydrate composition of honey from different floral

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Atefe Maghsoudlou, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Hossein Mohebodini and Fidel Toldra

locally isolated probiotic strains on antioxidant activities. Polish Journal of Food And Nutrition Sciences, 64 (3), 171-180. DOI: org/10.2478/pjfns-2013-0015 Nabas, Z., Haddadin, M. S. Y., Haddadin, J., & Nazer, I. K. (2014 b). The influence of royal jelly addition on the growth and production of short chain fatty acids of two different bacterial species isolated from infants in Jordan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 13 , 43-49. Nagai, T., Inoue, R., Suzuki, N., & Nagashima, T. (2008). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of enzymatic

Open access

J. Pavlinová, J. Kinčeková, A. Ostró, L. Saksun, Z. Vasilková and A. Königová


Infections of various aetiology during pregnancy present a serious risk factor that can lead to abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, birth of newborn with genetic developmental defects, or seemingly healthy infant that may develop symptoms later in life. A total of 530 sera of patients from gynaecology departments were examined for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara spp. and Listeria monocytogenes using ELISA (IgG, IgM). In women with habitual abortions we determined up to 42.1 % seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii. The prevalence of antibodies was statistically significant (p < 0.0004) when compared to control group (25.1 %). In the patients diagnosed with sterility the prevalence of antibodies (26.3 %) was similar to that of control group. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara spp. (5.5 %) and Listeria monocytogenes (2.3 %) in patients with habitual abortions were similar to those of women in the general population.

Open access

T. Grenda, E. Kukier, Z. Sieradzki, M. Goldsztejn and K. Kwiatek

Neurotoxin Type H Gene. J Infect Dis 209: 192-202. Gryko R, Goszczyński D, Lorkiewicz Z ( 1990 ) A simple method of detection of toxigenic Clostridium botulinum type B strains. J Microbiol Meth 11: 187-193. Hall JD, McCroskey LM, Pincomb BJ, Hatheway CL ( 1985 ) Isolation of an organism resembling Clostridium barati which produces type F botulinal toxin from an infant with botulism. J Clin Microbiol 21: 654-655. Hatheway CL ( 1990 ) Toxigenic clostridia. Clin Microbiol Rev 3: 66-98. Hatheway CL ( 1995 ) Botulism: the present status of the

Open access

Ewa Zastempowska, Jan Grajewski and Magdalena Twarużek

mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Food Chem. Toxicol., 56: 171–177. Al-Tofaily Y.I.Kh., Al rodhan M.A.N. (2011). Study of clinical mastitis (bacteriological) in she-camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) in some areas of middle Euphrates in Iraq. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 10: 66–76. Assem E., Mohamad A., Oula E.A. (2011). A survey on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw and processed milk samples marketed in Lebanon. Food Control, 22: 1856–1858. Barash J.R., Hsia J.K., Arnon S.S. (2010). Presence of soil-dwelling clostridia in commercial powdered infant formulas. J

Open access

M. Cieślak, N. Chmielewska, K. Romanowicz, J. Młynarczuk and M. Wańkowska

-pituitary-adrenal axis in the infant rat: the roles of feeding and stroking. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 75: 185-192. Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmond EJ, Bowers CY ( 2006 ) Somatotropic and gonadotropic axes linkages in infancy, childhood, and the puberty-adult transition. Endocr Rev 27: 101-140. Wańkowska M ( 2012 ) Influence of testicular hormones on the somatostatin-GH system during the growth promoted transition to puberty in sheep. Theriogenology 77: 615-627. Wańkowska M, Polkowska J ( 2009 ) Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and GnRH-associated peptide

Open access

T. Grenda, E. Kukier and K. Kwiatek

, ricin, botulinum toxins, and Staphyloccocus enterotoxins A, B, and C in food. J Agric Food Chem 58: 6600-6607. Glasby C, Hatheway CL (1985) Isolation and enumeration of Clostridium botulinum by direct inoculation of infant fecal specimens on egg yolk agar and Clostridium botulinum isolation media. J Clin Microbiol 21: 264-266. Grenda T, Kwiatek K (2009) Application of molecular-biology methods to the diagnosis of botulism in mallard ducks. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 53: 365-368. Grenda T, Kwiatek K (2010) In house validation