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Patricia D. Oulai, Lessoy T. Zoué and Sébastien L. Niamké


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata) that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05) at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%), proteins (0.36-12.03%), vitamin C (19.56-68.67%), carotenoids (18.91-55.48%) oxalates (3.58-21.39%) and phytates (10.51-68.02%). The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16%) of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05) of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g), magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g), potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g), iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g) and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g). All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

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Sumbo H. Abiose, Abiodun V. Ikujenlola and Florence I. Abioderin

: Infant feeding trial in Ghana, Ghana Health Service –Ashanti, Ghana, 2002, pp. 1–45. 5. Annan N.T., Plahar W.A., Development and quality evaluation of a soy fortified Ghanaian weaning food. Food Nutr. Bull., 1995, 16, 3, 263–267. 6. Bai X., Nutritional evaluation and utilization of quality protein maize Zhong dan 9409 in broiler feed. 2007, M. Sc. Thesis. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing 100081, P.R China. 7. Balogun O.O., Balogun E.A., Fetuga, B.L., Ayoola, Y., Comparative evaluation of the Nutritive values of Alternative pilot baby Cereal

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Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi and Olufunke O. Keshinro

. United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (ed. A.D. Moreira). Lavenhem Press, UK, pp.10-17. 14. Domellof M., Lonnerdal B., Abrams S.A., Hernell O., Iron absorption in breast-fed infants: effects of age, iron status, iron supplements, and complementary foods. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2002, 76, 198-204. 15. Edmond K.M., Zandoh C., Quigley M.A., Amenga-Etego S., Owusu-Agyei S., Kirkwood B.R., Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics, 2006, 117, E380-E386. 16. Eka B.E., Abbey B

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Jolanta B. Królczyk, Tomasz Dawidziuk, Emilia Janiszewska-Turak and Bartosz Sołowiej

, Applications Monographs. Bakery 1999, pp. 1-8. Available at: []. 9. Bylund G., Dairy Processing Handbook. Tetra Pak Processing Systems. 2003. 10. Chatterton D.E.W., Smithers G., Roupas P., Brodkorb A., Bioactivity of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing. Int. Dairy J., 2006, 16, 1229-1240. 11. Chung C.S., Yamini, S., FDA’s Health Claim Review: Whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics, 2012, 130, E408-E

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Karolina Rak, Danuta Kornafel and Monika Bronkowska

References 1. Agostoni C., Ghrelin, leptin and the neurometabolic axis of breastfed and formula-fed infants. Acta Paediatr., 2005, 94, 523-525. 2. Agostoni C., Baselli L., Mazzoni M.B., Early nutrition patterns and diseases of adulthood: A plausible link? Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2013, 24, 5-10. 3. Barker D.J.P., Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. Brit. Med. J, 1995, 311, 171-174. 4. Barker D.J.P., Eriksson J.G., Osmond C., Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological

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Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu and Ionela Avram

. Jeong S.C., Koyyalamudi S.R., Hughes J., Khoo C., Bailey T., Marripudi K., Park J.P., Kim J.H., Song C.H., Antioxidant and immunomodulating activities of exo- and endopolysaccharide fractions from submerged mycelia cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms. Int. J. Med. Mush., 2013, 15, 251–266. 19. Kailasapathy K., Chin, J., Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp.. Immun. Cell Biol., 2000, 78, 80–88. 20. Koleva P.T., Bridgman S.L., Kozyrskyj A.L., The infant gut

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Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Małgorzata Puta, Natalia Barczak, Joanna Dąbrowska, Edyta Malinowska-Pańczyk, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska and Ilona Kołodziejska

., Ozkan B., Influence of smoking on serum and milk malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and antioxidant potential levels in mothers at the postpartum seventh day. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 2005, 105, 27–36. 5. Esterbauer H., Schaur R.J., Zollner H., Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 1991, 11, 81–128. 6. Friel J.K., Friesen R.W., Harding S.V., Roberts L.J., Evidence of oxidative stress in full term healthy infants. Pediatr. Res., 2004, 56, 878–882. 7

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R. Švejstil, Š. Musilová and V. Rada

): Soy oligosaccharides and soluble non-starch polysaccharides: a review of digestion, nutritive and antinutritive effects in pigs and poultry. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23, 1386-1398. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2010.90222. Commission Directive 2006/141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC (text with EEA relevance). Official Journal of the European Union, L401/1. Accessed 21 May

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Mahmoud Tavakoli, Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani, Mohammad Amin Hejazi, Mohammad Hossein Azizi and Soleiman Abbasi

REFERENCES 1. Arici M., Bilgin B., Sagdic O., Ozdemir C., Some characteristics of Lactobacillus isolates from infant faeces. Food Microbiol., 2004, 21, 19–24. 2. Belviso S., Giordano M., Dolci P., Zeppa G., In vitro cholesterol-lowering activity of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from the Italian Castelmagno PDO cheese. Dairy Sci. Technol., 2009, 89, 169–176. 3. Blanquet S., Zeijdner E., Beyssac E., Meunier J.P., Denis S., Havenaar R., Alric M., A dynamic artificial gastrointestinal system for

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Recep Kara and Sinan Ince

. Poll., 2007, 31, 142–154. 12. Melgar M.J., Santaeufemia M., García M.A. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw milk and infant formulas from Spanish northwest. J.Env. Sci. Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contam. Agric. Wastes, 2010, 45, 595–600. 13. Nair S., Pradeep T., Extraction of chlorpyrifos and malathion from water by metal nanoparticles. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 2007, 7, 1871–1877 14. Nalecz-Tarwacka T., Karaszewska A., Zdziarski K., The influence of carrot addition to cowõs ration on the level of vitamins and fatty acids in cow milk