References Ernst AJ, Brine E. Practical Use of Human Milk Fortifiers: Consideration for Infants Very Low Birth Weight in Human Milk for VLBW Infants. Report of the 108 th . Ross Conference on Pediatric Research, Ohio , 1999; Abbott Lab; 129. Schanler RJ. Human Milk Fortification for Premature Infant. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64 : 249. Kuschel CA, Harding JE. Multicomponent fortified human milk for promoting growth in preterm infant. Protocol: http
Miroslava Ljujić-Glišić and Niveska Božinović-Prekajski
Liljana Guržanova-Durnev, Elizabeta Zisovska and Božidarka Đošić-Markovska
the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Med 1967; 70: 158-69. 15. Thibeault DW. The precarious antioxidant defences of the preterm infant. Am J Perinatol 2000; 17 (4): 167-81. 16. Ochoa JJ, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Quiles JL, Palomino N, Robles R, Mataix J, et al. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes from premature and full-term infants during their first 72 h of life. Free Radic Res 2003; 37 (3): 317-22. 17. Arguelles S, Machado MJ, Ayala A, Machado A, Hervias B
Milica Ranković Janevski, Ana Đorđević Vujičić and Svjetlana Maglajić Đukić
References 1. Wormald F, Tapia JL, Torres G, Canepa P, Gonzales MA, Rodrigez D, et al. Stress in parents of very low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. A multicenter study. Arch Argent Pediatr 2015; 1; 113(4): 303–9. 2. Shaw RJ, Bernard RS, Deblois T, Ikuta LM, Ginzburg K, Koopman C. The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in the neonatal intensive care unit. Psychosomatics 2009; 50(2): 131–7. 3. Vetulani J. Early maternal separation: a rodent model of depression
Ljubomir Milašinović, Ivan Hrabovski, Zorica Grujić, Mirjana Bogavac and Aleksandra Nikolić
. Sem Neonatal 2000: 5: 221-9. WHO. Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus, second report. Technical Report Series. Geneva 1986; 646: 113-35. Report of the FIGO Sub-Committee on Perinatal Epidemiology and Health Statistics following a workshop in Cairo. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1986; 24: 483-7. Barnes-Powell LL. Infants of diabetic mothers: the effects of hyperglycemia on the fetus and neonate. Neonate Netw 2007; 26 (5): 283-90. Starčević V, Đelmiš J, Ivanišević M, Mayer
Iuliu C. Ivanov, Daniela Jitam, Georgiana E. Grigore, Mihaela Zlei, Anca V. Ivanov, Silvia Dumitraş, Eugen Carasevici and Ingritli C. Miron
infant leukemias. Leukemia. 1995 May;9(5):762-9 7. Ludwig W D, Rieder H, Bartram C R, Heinze B, Schwartz S, Gassmann W, et al. Immunophenotypic and genotypic features, clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of adult pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the German multicenter trials GMALL03/87 and 04/89. Blood 1998; 92:1898-1909 8. van Dongen JJ, Macintyre EA, Gabert JA, Delabesse E, Rossi V, Saglio G, et al. Standardized RT-PCR analysis of fusion gene transcripts from chromosome aberrations in acute leukemia for
Joanna Berska, Jolanta Bugajska and Krystyna Sztefko
more extensive analytical measurement range, which is particularly evident for newborns and infants ( 7 ). Newborns metabolism is very dynamic and continuous changes in concentration of many analytes in plasma during the first two weeks of life are observed leading to differences in the sample matrix. One of the important plasma components influencing plasma free bilirubin concentration is albumin which is also an acute phase protein and frequently is very low in sick babies. Also, due to a wide range of hematocrit ( 8 ) seen in newborns plasma volume differs
Zein Mirghani, Tayseer Zein, Samuel Annoble, John Winter and Randa Mostafa
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Nemanja Višnjevac, Ljiljana Segedi, Aleksandar Ćurčić, Jovana Višnjevac and Dragan Stajić
morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. N Engl J Med 1999; 340 (16): 1234-8. Roth S, Chang TC, Robson S. The neurodevelopmental outcome of term infants with different intrauterine growth characteristics. Early Hum Dev 1999; 55 (1): 39-50. Cnattingius S, Haglund B, Kramer MS. Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study. BMJ 1998; 316: 1437-8. Shankaran S, Das A, Bauer CR. Fetal origin of
Violeta Anastasovska and Mirjana Kocova
Background: Iodine deficiency is associated with goiter and impaired brain function leading to cretinism. An increased frequency of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurements above 5 mIU/L on newborn screening points toward an impaired iodine status of the population.
Methods: A 13-year retrospective analysis was performed in 228,266 newborns participating in the national thyroid newborn screening program. The TSH concentration was measured in dry blood spots collected by heel stick on filter paper, 48 hours after birth, using fluoroimmunometric DELFIA method.
Results: Out of 236,378 live-born infants, 228,266 (96.6%) have been screened for TSH, of which 198,213 (86.8%) were retrospectively evaluated for TSH levels above 5 mIU/L. Neonates with congenital hypothyroidism, prematurity, and low birth weight were excluded from the evaluation, as well as the inadequately sampled neonates (13.2%). A national prevalence of 3.08% newborns (n=6,105) with TSH > 5 mIU/L was found. Higher percentages were noted in two regions of the country, indicating possible mild iodine deficiency in these regions and shifting the overall average to above 3%.
Conclusions: Our results indicate overall iodine sufficiency in the Macedonian population. Additional assessment of the iodine intake in the regions with suspected mild iodine deficiency is needed to prevent suboptimal cognitive and psychomotor outcomes.
Donovan McGrowder, Kevin Grant, Rachael Irving, Lorenzo Gordon, Tazhmoye Crawford, Ruby Alexander-Lindo and Yeiny Pena Fraser
Lipid Profile and Clinical Characteristics of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Preeclampsia
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and other maternal and foetal complications of pregnancy. The aims of the study were to evaluate the serum lipid profile of women with GDM, and determine the number of women with GDM who have preeclampsia (PE). A retrospective study of 84 women with GDM and 90 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (controls) was conducted. Women with GDM had significantly higher parity (p=0.047), total cholesterol (p=0.039) and triglycerides (p=0.033), but non-significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (p=0.086) when compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated in women with GDM coupled with PE (GDM-PE; p=0.015), the mean birth weight of infants born to women with GDM-PE was significantly lower than that of women with only GDM (p=0.025). Women with GDM-PE had significantly higher triglycerides (p=0.020), had to be more multi-gravida (p=0.047) with significantly elevated VLDL-cholesterol (p=0.037) when compared with women with only GDM. 11.9% of women with GDM had PE. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that GDM is associated with hyperlipidaemia as evident by the significantly elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Women with dyslipidaemia and GDM are at risk of developing preeclampsia. It is imperative that blood lipids be evaluated in women with GDM during antenatal care as it would be helpful in the early detection and treatment of PE.