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Nicholas J. D’Angelo


The United States considers itself a world superpower in many realms, but equality in political representation is not one of them. Currently, female representation in the United States Congress hovers around nineteen-percent, placing the United States in league with nations that have historically oppressed women, including Kenya and Tajikistan. While other, more infant, democracies have utilized political quotas as a means to increase female political involvement, the United States’ maintains a tradition of formal equality and neutralism. Long-standing precedent remains suspicious of anything resembling a quota. However, France faced a similar dilemma, unable to increase female representation due to a tradition of universalism. Working within its constitutional confines, France adopted parity in an attempt to achieve “perfect equality.” This paper argues that the United States may be able to use France as an example, thus potentially increasing female representation through a parity system that respects the traditions of our Constitution.

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James E. Pfander

as taxpayers does not give them a concrete or personal stake in every government decision to spend federal money; the impact of any expenditure on any particular citizen’s tax liability has been regarded as too diffuse to warrant standing. See Frothingham v. Mellon, 262 U.S. 447 (1921) (no standing to challenge federal financial support for state programs to reduce maternal and infant mortality). The Warren Court created an exception to this rule in Flast v . Cohen , recognizing taxpayer standing to challenge the appropriation of federal money to a religious

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Deborah J. Anthony

substantial changes to them. Married women’s property rights were essentially nonexistent, Pearl Hogrefe, Legal Rights of Tudor Women and the Circumvention by Men and Women, 3 t HE s IXTEENTH c ENTURY J. 97, 100 (1972). and husbands were thoroughly dominant over their wives. A commentator in 1816 noted that “[m] arried women are, by the law of England, subject, in matters of contract, to a greater disability even than infants …” P EREGRINE B INGHAM T HE Y OUNGER , L AW OF I NFANCY AND C OVERTURE 161 (1816). While women had been able to inherit in the absence of

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John Vlahoplus

owe to the country of their nativity . …… See Ex parte Dawson 3 Bradf. Ch. 130, 136-38 (N.Y. Surr. Ct. 1855), . Cf . Weedin v. Chin Bow, 274 U.S. 657, 660 (1927) (the Acts of Ann. and Geo. II deemed children natural born, and the Act of Geo. III extended this to the next generation). An English court considered its jurisdiction over an infant born and living in France in In re Willoughby (1885) 30 Ch. D. 324, aff’d , (1886) 53 LT 926. The child met the paternal requirement of the Act of Geo. III; the court found

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Peter L. Lindseth

Eleftheriadis Pavlos (eds), Philosophical Foundations of European Union Law , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 247-74. • Pescatore Pierre, 1983, “The Doctrine of Direct Effect: An Infant Disease of Community Law”, European Law Review , VIII: 155–77. • Rodrik Dani, 2011, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy . W. W. Norton & Company, New York. • Rodrik Dani, 2016, “Brexit and the Globalization Trilemma”, Dani Rodrik’s Weblog . Retrieved August 8, 2016 (

Open access

Robert Garot

, probably about 6’3” – a giant by Italian standards, probably around 240 pounds, with a bit of a belly, but thick arms and chest, short, lightly gelled black hair making a sort of bowl cut, and a deep, commanding voice, demanded to know when he could bring his daughter in for her passport. He paced back and forth, holding the infant lightly in his arms, sometimes transferring her from one arm to the other. His wife (apparently), with blondish red hair, around 5’2” with a baby stroller, stood behind him and never uttered a word. Some near me remarked at what a shame it was