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Inga Širina, Ieva Strēle, Inese Siksna and Dace Gardovska

REFERENCES Anonymous (2003). Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child . Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Division of Health Promotion and Protection Food and Nutrition Program, Washington. 37 pp. Anonymous (2009). Infant and young child feeding: model Chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. WHO, France. 102 pp. Anonymous (2013). Scientific opinion on nutrient requirements and dietary intakes of infants and young children in the EU. EFSA J. , 11 (10), 103

Open access

Elīna Ligere, Inguna Lubaua, Inga Lāce, Inta Bergmane, Vita Knauere, Valts Ozoliņš, Lauris Šmits, Normunds Sikora and Lācis Aris

and young infants: Is small size or low weight a risk factor? J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg ., 138 , 547–552. Daiels, S. R., Kimball, T. R., Morrison, J. A., Khoury, P., Meyer, R. A. (1995). Indexing left ventricle mass to account for differences in body size in children and adolescents without cardiovascular disease. Amer. J. Cardiol ., 76 , 699–701. De Simone, G., Devereux, R. B., Daniels, S. R., Koren, M. J., Meyer, R. A., Roman, M. J. (1995). Effect of growth on variability of left ventricular mass: Assessment of allometric signals in adults and children

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Irēna Putniòa, Silvija Remberga and Ingrîda Rumba-Rozenfelde

References Anonymous (2012). Estonian Health Insurance Fund. http://www.haigekassa.ee/eng/service/medicinal-products (last accessed 20 August 2012). D’Auria, E., Mandelli, M., Ballista, P., Di Dio, F., Giovannini, M. (2011). Growth impairment and nutritional deficiencies in a cow’s milk-allergic infant fed by unmodified donkey’s milk. Case Rep. Pediatr ., September. http://www.hindawi.com/crim/pediatrics/2011/103825/ (last accessed 2 October 2013). Berg, A., Kramer, U., Link, E., Bollrath, C., Heinrich

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Anda Vilmane, Inga Ziemele, Santa Rasa, Anna Terentjeva, Modra Murovska, Dace Gardovska, Yung-Cheng Lin and Zaiga Nora-Krūkle

Abstract

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of children in the world. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 3, and adenoviruses, several new respiratory viruses associated with LRTI were discovered in the 21st century. These are metapneumovirus, coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1, parainfluenza virus type four and human bocavirus one (HBoV1). HBoV1 was discovered in 2005 and is considered as the fourth most prevalent respiratory virus worldwide. However, the high frequency of co-infections detected together with HBoV1 raises doubt about whether HBoV1 is a true pathogen or just a bystander. This is the first study aimed to determine the presence of HBoV1 and 18 other respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of children with LRTI in Latvia. Using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method, the HBoV1 genomic sequence was detected in 60.0% of NPA samples, showing that HBoV1 prevalence is high among children with LRTI in Latvia. HBoV1 mono-infection was revealed in 6.67%. The most common co-infections associated with HBoV1 were rhinovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus A and B, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus.

Open access

Līga Broka, Ilva Daugule, Inga Ciproviča, Daiga Kviļūna and Ingrīda Rumba-Rozenfelde

References Anonymous (2009). Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 6th edn. Kleinman, R. E (Ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, El Grove Village, IL. 1470 pp; at pp. 1201-1203. Bauer, J., Gerss, J. (2011). Longitudinal analysis of macronutrients and mineral in human milk produced by mothers of preterm infants. Clin. Nutr., 3 (2), 215-220. Cederlund, A., Kai-Larsen, Y., Printz, G., Yoshio, H., Alvelius, G. Lagercrantz, H., Strömberg, R., Jörnvall, H., Gudmundsson, G H., Agerberth, B. (2013

Open access

Ilze Meldere, Liene Rucka, Santa Smilga, Zane Ābola and Aigars Pētersons

, C. A., Hollingsworth, C. L., Wriston C. et al. , Beam, C., Rice, H., Bisset, G. 3rd. (2009). Radiographic predictors of disease severity in neonates and infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Amer. J. Roentgenl., 193 , 1408–1413. Downard, C. D.., Renaud, E., St Peter, S. D., Abdullah, F., Islam, S., Saito, J. M., Blakely, M. L., Huang, E. Y., Arca, M. J., Cassidy, L., Aspelund, G., American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes Clinical Trials Committee (2012). Treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes

Open access

Baiba Lāce, Santa Grīnblate, Liene Korņejeva, Vija Švābe, Ineta Grauduma, Pārsla Vēvere, Rita Lugovska, Alvils Krams and Agris Martinsons

References Anonymous (2009). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. [PUBMED] Bobadilla, J., L., Farrell, M.H., Farrell, P.M. (2002). Applying CFTR molecular genetics to facilitate the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis through screening. Adv. Pediatr. , 49 , 131-190. Corbetta, C., Seia, M., Bassotti, A., Ambrosioni, A., Giunta, A., Padoan, R. (2002). Screening for cystic fibrosis in newborn infants: Results of a pilot programme based on a two tier protocol (IRT

Open access

Carla Johnen and Ilva Daugule

REFERENCES Bertini, G., Breschi, R., Dani, C. (2014). Physiological weight loss chart helps to identify high-risk infants who need breastfeeding support. Acta Paediatrica , 104 (10), 1024–1027. Broka, L., Daugule, I., Ciproviča, I., Kviļūna, D., Rumba-Rozenfelde I. (2016). Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating woman in Latvia. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci ., 70 (2), 47–50. Caglar, M. K., Ozer, I., Altugan, F. S. (2006). Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Brazilian J. Med

Open access

Gunta Laizāne, Anda Ķīvīte, Ilze Grope, Liene Smane, Edvīns Miklaševics, Laura Ozoliņa and Dace Gardovska

Abstract

In developed and developing countries, most cases of acute gastroenteritis in children are caused by viruses, and rotaviruses are known as the leading cause. The aim of our study was to estimate the main circulating serotypes of rotavirus before the introduction of routine immunisation in Latvia, and to search for their possible correlation with clinical symptoms and circulating genotypes. A cross-sectional study was carried out among children who had been hospitalised in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital from April 2013 to December 2015. Genotyping was done for 462 stool samples. Among G/P combinations, the most predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (61.3%), G9P[8] (12.4%) and G2P[4] (10.0%) in children of age < 5 years, G4P[8] (45.5%), G2P[4] (18.2%), G9P[8], G3P[8], and G1P[8] (9.1%) in children of age > 5 years. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between clinical signs (vomiting, dehydration, chronic diseases) and G1P[8] and G8P[8] genotypes. Infants infected with genotype G4P[4] had a statistically significant negative correlation with severity of acute gastroenteritis episodes (p < 0.05). We detected nine different rotavirus G genotypes, and two different P genotypes. G4P[8], G9P[8], and G2P[8] were predominant. We observed correlation between the dominant genotypes and clinical manifestations of rotavirus infection.

Open access

Margarita Sriubienė, Irena Andriuškevičiūtė and Algimantas Sinkus

References Atkinson, J., Anker, S., Bobier, W., Oliver, B., Kim, D., Marko, N., Peter, W. (2000). Normal emmetropization in infants with spectacle correction for hyperopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. , 41, 3726-3731. Caputo, A.R., Wagner, R.S., Reynolds, D.R., Guo, S.Q., Goel, A.K. (1989). Down syndrome: Clinical review of ocular features. Clin. Pediatr. (Phila) , 28(8), 355-358. Catalano, R.A. (1990). Down syndrome. Surv. Ophthalmol. , 34(5), 385