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Joseph David

References Abu, N. (2017). Does Okun’s law exist in Nigeria? Evidence from the ARDL bounds testing approach. Contemporary Economics , 11(2), 131-144. doi: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.232 Andrews, K.M., Brouillette, D.B., & Brouillette, R.T. (2008). Mortality infant. Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development , 343–359. doi :10.1016/B978-012370877-9.00084-0 Anyanwu, J.C., & Erhijakpor, A.E.O. (2007). Health expenditures and health outcomes in Africa. Economic Research Working Paper No 91 of African Development Bank. Babatunde, M

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Sorin Gabriel Anton

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to assess the technical efficiency of twenty health systems from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We used an outputoriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the technical efficiency of the health systems using the latest data available on infant death and life expectancy as health outcomes. Our results show that technical efficiency varies across these health systems and this translates into potential savings of resources. The average efficiency scores for all heath systems were 0.98 for life expectancy at birth and only 0.821 for infant mortality. More than half of the health systems in the sample were technically inefficient in 2009 for both outputs. We found that 30% of national health systems were technically efficient for both outputs.

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Atif Awad and Ishak Yussof

: Cambridge University Press. Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. and Smith, J.R., 2001: Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. In: Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 289-326. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jae.616 Phillips, P.C.B. and Perron, P., 1988: Testing for a unit root in time series regressions. In: Biometrika, Vol. 75, Issue 2, pp. 335-346. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/75.2.335 Preston, S.H., 1978: The effects of infant and child mortality on fertility, New York: Academic

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Eleftherios Makedonas, Sotirios Bellos and Subasat Turan

the 1980s. A comparison with other low-income countries’, World Bank, Working Paper Series no. 1000. Foxley A (1983) Latin American Experiments in Neoconservative Economics , Berkeley and LosAngeles: University of California Press. Frey R S and Field C (2000) ‘The determinants of infant mortality in the Less Developed Countries: a cross-national test of five theories’, Social Indicators Research, 52, 215–234. Friedman M (1969) The optimum quantity of money: And other essays , Chicago: Aldine Transaction. Friedman M and Heller W W (1969

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Błażej Skrzypulec

References 1. Armstrong, D. M. 1978, Universals and Scientific Realism. Vol. I: Nominalism and Realism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2. Bahrami, B. 2003, “Object Property Encoding and Change Blindness in Multiple Object Tracking”, Visual Cognition 10, pp. 949–963. 3. Carey, S., Xu, F. 2001, “Infants’ Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking”, Cognition 80(1–2), pp. 179–213. 4. Clark, A. 2004, “Sensing, Objects, and Awareness: Reply to Commentators”, Philosophical Psychology 17(4), pp. 563–589. 5

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Almira Arnaut-Berilo, Adela Delalic and Adisa Huseinbasic

-234. Rambeloson, Z.J., Darmon, N. and Ferguson, E.L., 2008. Linear programming can help identify practical solutions to improve the nutritional quality of food aid. Public health nutrition, 11(04), pp.395-404. Skau, J.K., Bunthang, T., Chamnan, C., Wieringa, F.T., Dijkhuizen, M.A., Roos, N. and Ferguson, E.L., 2014. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6-to 11-month-old Cambodian infants. The American journal of clinical nutrition, pp.ajcn-073700. European Commission, Directorate

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Elżbieta Sojka

Demographic potential of the countries that have applied for the European Union membership

The purpose of the article is to analyse the demographic potential of the countries that have applied for the European Union membership against the background of the EU member states. The study involves eight candidate states: Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Turkey, i.e. the countries that have been approved by the European Commission as official candidates for the EU membership, as well as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, i.e. the potential candidates. Albania and Serbia applied officially for the EU membership in 2009. Favourable population age structure and relatively high fertility rate that occur in these countries determine a significant demographic potential they can bring to the EU after their accession. Decrease in infant mortality rate and extension of life expectancy illustrate positive changes that have been taking place in these countries for the last several years.

Open access

Elżbieta Sojka

Abstract

The paper is a comparative analysis of health condition of EU-27 states that are differentiated with respect to demographic situation and the level of social and economic development with the use of methods of multidimensional comparative analysis. Relationships between macroeconomic values and health indices of EU populations were also studied with the use of demometric models. The study was performed for 2009. The most favourable health situation (in the light of diagnostic qualities adopted for the study) was observed in Cyprus, where the value of synthetic measure was almost 0.9. Cyprus is a relatively young country, with the lowest rate of mortality due to malicious tumours among all the countries of the European Community. Apart from Cyprus, Ireland was found in the first group (the lowest rate of people at 65+ years of age of all EU countries), Luxembourg (low rate of infant mortality) and Spain (relatively low mortality due to diseases of circulatory system). Definitely the worst health situation was observed in majority of the countries of the former Eastern bloc. On the grounds of the correlation diagram it was possible to conclude that, together with social and economic development of the country and resulting growth in expenditures on health protection per capita, mean life expectancy at birth significantly extended. However, these relations are not linear. Logarithmically constructed regression functions proved a strong and statistically significant impact of macroeconomic values on indices of population health condition.

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Muhammad Miandad, Syed Nawaz-ul-Huda, Farkhunda Burke, Muhammad Azam and Imran Khan

matter (PM2.5) air pollution and selected causes of postneonatal infant mortality in California. In. Environmental Health Perspective. Vol. 114(5), pp. 786-790. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1289/ehp.8484 Zaman, R.M., Stewart, S.M. and Zaman, T.R., 2006: Pakistan: culture, community, and familial obligations in a Muslim society. In: Georgas, J, Berry, J.W., De Vijver, F.R.V., Kagitcibasi, C., Poortinga, Y.H. editors, Families, a cross cultures: a 30 nation psychological study, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 427-34. Zammarchi, L

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Peter L. Lindseth

Eleftheriadis Pavlos (eds), Philosophical Foundations of European Union Law , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 247-74. • Pescatore Pierre, 1983, “The Doctrine of Direct Effect: An Infant Disease of Community Law”, European Law Review , VIII: 155–77. • Rodrik Dani, 2011, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy . W. W. Norton & Company, New York. • Rodrik Dani, 2016, “Brexit and the Globalization Trilemma”, Dani Rodrik’s Weblog . Retrieved August 8, 2016 ( http://rodrik.typepad.com/dani_rodriks_weblog/2016/06/brexit