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Małgorzata Markowska and Marek Sobolewski


The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013), regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015) are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index). For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

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Thanh Minh Nguyen, Tuyen Quang Tran and Long Thanh Do

–423. Hansen, H., Rand, J., & Tarp, F. (2009), Enterprise growth and survival in Vietnam: does government support matter? , ʽThe Journal of Development Studiesʼ, 45(7), 1048–1069. Joshi, A., Prichard, W. & Heady, C. (2013), Taxing the informal economy: Challenges, possibilities and remaining questions . IDS Working Papers. Kizhakethalackal, E.T., Mukherjee, D., & Alvi, E. (2013), Quantile regression analysis of health-aid and infant mortality: a note, ʽApplied Economics Lettersʼ, 20(13), 1197–1201. Loayza, N.V. (1997), The economics of the informal

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Ingrid Majerová

) Generalized Method of Moments and Empirical Likelihood. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. 20(4), pp. 493-506, DOI: 10.1198/073500102288618630. ISSA, H. & OUATTARA, B. (2005). The effect of private and public health expenditure on infant mortality rates: does the level of development matters. Damascus Univ. Journal . 28(1), pp. 21-37. JALAN, J. & RAVALLION, M. (1998). Are there dynamic gains from a poor-area development program? Journal of Public Economics . 67(1), pp. 65-85. DOI: 10.1016/S0047-2727(97)00052-2. KING, D. (2012). Hospital

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Eleftherios Makedonas, Sotirios Bellos and Subasat Turan

the 1980s. A comparison with other low-income countries’, World Bank, Working Paper Series no. 1000. Foxley A (1983) Latin American Experiments in Neoconservative Economics , Berkeley and LosAngeles: University of California Press. Frey R S and Field C (2000) ‘The determinants of infant mortality in the Less Developed Countries: a cross-national test of five theories’, Social Indicators Research, 52, 215–234. Friedman M (1969) The optimum quantity of money: And other essays , Chicago: Aldine Transaction. Friedman M and Heller W W (1969

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Tomasz P. Wiśniewski

. The argument suggests that welfare subjectivism, which implies that something has given quality for an individual (is good or bad), is the case if and only if, under the right conditions, this individual has appropriately given attitude towards it (favourable or not favourable). If so, such a theory of welfare should, according to Lin, be tested for what it implies about newborn infants. Consequent philosophical polemic is that such an argument could be rejected if actually tested for newborns, since neonatal welfare carries counterintuitive suggestions versus