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Joseph David

References Abu, N. (2017). Does Okun’s law exist in Nigeria? Evidence from the ARDL bounds testing approach. Contemporary Economics , 11(2), 131-144. doi: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.232 Andrews, K.M., Brouillette, D.B., & Brouillette, R.T. (2008). Mortality infant. Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development , 343–359. doi :10.1016/B978-012370877-9.00084-0 Anyanwu, J.C., & Erhijakpor, A.E.O. (2007). Health expenditures and health outcomes in Africa. Economic Research Working Paper No 91 of African Development Bank. Babatunde, M

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Sorin Gabriel Anton

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to assess the technical efficiency of twenty health systems from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We used an outputoriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the technical efficiency of the health systems using the latest data available on infant death and life expectancy as health outcomes. Our results show that technical efficiency varies across these health systems and this translates into potential savings of resources. The average efficiency scores for all heath systems were 0.98 for life expectancy at birth and only 0.821 for infant mortality. More than half of the health systems in the sample were technically inefficient in 2009 for both outputs. We found that 30% of national health systems were technically efficient for both outputs.

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Małgorzata Markowska and Marek Sobolewski

Abstract

The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013), regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015) are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index). For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

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Thanh Minh Nguyen, Tuyen Quang Tran and Long Thanh Do

–423. Hansen, H., Rand, J., & Tarp, F. (2009), Enterprise growth and survival in Vietnam: does government support matter? , ʽThe Journal of Development Studiesʼ, 45(7), 1048–1069. Joshi, A., Prichard, W. & Heady, C. (2013), Taxing the informal economy: Challenges, possibilities and remaining questions . IDS Working Papers. Kizhakethalackal, E.T., Mukherjee, D., & Alvi, E. (2013), Quantile regression analysis of health-aid and infant mortality: a note, ʽApplied Economics Lettersʼ, 20(13), 1197–1201. Loayza, N.V. (1997), The economics of the informal

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Ingrid Majerová

) Generalized Method of Moments and Empirical Likelihood. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. 20(4), pp. 493-506, DOI: 10.1198/073500102288618630. ISSA, H. & OUATTARA, B. (2005). The effect of private and public health expenditure on infant mortality rates: does the level of development matters. Damascus Univ. Journal . 28(1), pp. 21-37. JALAN, J. & RAVALLION, M. (1998). Are there dynamic gains from a poor-area development program? Journal of Public Economics . 67(1), pp. 65-85. DOI: 10.1016/S0047-2727(97)00052-2. KING, D. (2012). Hospital

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Atif Awad and Ishak Yussof

: Cambridge University Press. Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. and Smith, J.R., 2001: Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. In: Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 289-326. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jae.616 Phillips, P.C.B. and Perron, P., 1988: Testing for a unit root in time series regressions. In: Biometrika, Vol. 75, Issue 2, pp. 335-346. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/75.2.335 Preston, S.H., 1978: The effects of infant and child mortality on fertility, New York: Academic

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Eleftherios Makedonas, Sotirios Bellos and Subasat Turan

the 1980s. A comparison with other low-income countries’, World Bank, Working Paper Series no. 1000. Foxley A (1983) Latin American Experiments in Neoconservative Economics , Berkeley and LosAngeles: University of California Press. Frey R S and Field C (2000) ‘The determinants of infant mortality in the Less Developed Countries: a cross-national test of five theories’, Social Indicators Research, 52, 215–234. Friedman M (1969) The optimum quantity of money: And other essays , Chicago: Aldine Transaction. Friedman M and Heller W W (1969

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Błażej Skrzypulec

References 1. Armstrong, D. M. 1978, Universals and Scientific Realism. Vol. I: Nominalism and Realism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2. Bahrami, B. 2003, “Object Property Encoding and Change Blindness in Multiple Object Tracking”, Visual Cognition 10, pp. 949–963. 3. Carey, S., Xu, F. 2001, “Infants’ Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking”, Cognition 80(1–2), pp. 179–213. 4. Clark, A. 2004, “Sensing, Objects, and Awareness: Reply to Commentators”, Philosophical Psychology 17(4), pp. 563–589. 5

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Almira Arnaut-Berilo, Adela Delalic and Adisa Huseinbasic

-234. Rambeloson, Z.J., Darmon, N. and Ferguson, E.L., 2008. Linear programming can help identify practical solutions to improve the nutritional quality of food aid. Public health nutrition, 11(04), pp.395-404. Skau, J.K., Bunthang, T., Chamnan, C., Wieringa, F.T., Dijkhuizen, M.A., Roos, N. and Ferguson, E.L., 2014. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6-to 11-month-old Cambodian infants. The American journal of clinical nutrition, pp.ajcn-073700. European Commission, Directorate

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Tomasz P. Wiśniewski

. The argument suggests that welfare subjectivism, which implies that something has given quality for an individual (is good or bad), is the case if and only if, under the right conditions, this individual has appropriately given attitude towards it (favourable or not favourable). If so, such a theory of welfare should, according to Lin, be tested for what it implies about newborn infants. Consequent philosophical polemic is that such an argument could be rejected if actually tested for newborns, since neonatal welfare carries counterintuitive suggestions versus