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Gábor Mészáros

and accuracy of pedigree records. The pedigrees were a central tool in the assessment of relatedness between individuals, and consequently, the avoidance of mating overly related individuals that could lead to occurrence of recessive disorders, decline in fertility and overall fitness. Based on the rate of inbreeding (and other factors), the effective population size could be assessed, as a comparison metric of real and idealized populations. This metric then provided a reference on the overall genetic diversity of populations. However, the problem with the

Open access

Roman Wan-Wendner

cohesive discrete cracks ( Hillerborg et al., 1976 ). Another class of models often used to simulate quasi-brittle materials is based on lattice or particle formulations in which materials are discretized ’a priori’ according to an idealization of their internal structure. Particle size and size of the contact area among particles, for particle models, as well as lattice spacing and cross sectional area, for lattice models, equip these types of formulations with inherent characteristic lengths and they have the intrinsic ability of simulating the geometrical features