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Bhaskar De and Mahua Mukherjee

. Review on the impact of urban geometry and pedestrian level greening on outdoor thermal comfort. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2016:54:1002–1017. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.104 [17] Johansson E. Urban Design and Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Warm Climates: Studies in Fez and Colombo. PhD Thesis. Lund: Grahns Tryckeri AB, 2006. [18] Abreu-Harbich L. V., Labaki L. C., Matzarakis A. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 2014:115(1–2):333–340. doi:10.1007/s00704

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J.I. Córcoles, A. Domínguez, M.A. Moreno, J.F. Ortega and J.A. de Juan

. Yonekawa, S., Sakai, N. and Kitani, O. 1996. Identification of idealized leaf types using simple dimensionless shape factors by image analysis. Transaction of the ASAE 39: 1525-1533.

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P. Tuohy, J. Humphreys, N.M. Holden, J. O’Loughlin, B. Reidy and O. Fenton

profile and hydraulic conductivity measurements in the field ( Bouwer and Rice, 1983 ; Oosterbaan and Nijland, 1994 ; Mulqueen, 1995 ) and laboratory ( BS 1377-5:1990 ). Such data along with soil profile geometry parameters are used with drainage design formulae ( Ernst, 1956 ; Kirkham, 1958 ; Toksöz and Kirkham, 1961 ; Toksöz and Kirkham, 1971a , b ; Ritzema, 1994 ) to prescribe an idealised drain depth and spacing (distance between adjacent drains). There has been little uptake of these scientific design methods by Irish landowners due to the financial cost

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Gábor Mészáros

and accuracy of pedigree records. The pedigrees were a central tool in the assessment of relatedness between individuals, and consequently, the avoidance of mating overly related individuals that could lead to occurrence of recessive disorders, decline in fertility and overall fitness. Based on the rate of inbreeding (and other factors), the effective population size could be assessed, as a comparison metric of real and idealized populations. This metric then provided a reference on the overall genetic diversity of populations. However, the problem with the

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Roman Wan-Wendner

cohesive discrete cracks ( Hillerborg et al., 1976 ). Another class of models often used to simulate quasi-brittle materials is based on lattice or particle formulations in which materials are discretized ’a priori’ according to an idealization of their internal structure. Particle size and size of the contact area among particles, for particle models, as well as lattice spacing and cross sectional area, for lattice models, equip these types of formulations with inherent characteristic lengths and they have the intrinsic ability of simulating the geometrical features

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Zhiyong Pei, Tao Xu and Weiguo Wu

References 1. -reach-lowest-point-in-a-decade/ 2. J. Caldwell, “Ultimate longitudinal strength,” Trans Royal Inst Nav Arch, Vol. 107, pp. 411-430, 1965. 3. C. Smith, “Influence of Local Compressive Failure on Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of a Ship’s Hull,” Proc. Int. Symp. On Practical Design in Shipbuilding (PRADS), pp. 73-79, 1977. 4. Z. Pei, and M. Fujikubo, “Application of idealized structural unit method to progressive collapse analysis

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Krzysztof J. Kaliński, Marek A. Galewski, Michał Mazur and Marek Chodnicki

Science and Technology, Vol. 34 (1) (2010), pp. 5-20. 6. Iwicki P., Tejchman A., Chrościelewski J. : Dynamic FE simulations of buckling process in thin-walled cylindrical metal silos. Thin-Walled Structures, (2014), pp. 344-359. 7. Kaliński K. J.: Vibration surveillance of mechanical systems which are idealised discretely (in Polish). Gdańsk University of Technology Publishers, Gdańsk 2001. 8. Kaliński K. J. A surveillance of dynamic processes in mechanical systems (in Polish). Gdańsk University of Technology Publishers

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Hasan Ölmez and Ertekin Bayraktarkatal

References 1. [1] Paik, J.K., Thayamballi, A.K. : Ultimate limit state design of steel-plated structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2003. 2. Smith, C.S. :. Influence of local compressive failure on ultimate longitudinal strength of a ship’s hull. PRADSInternational Symposium on Practical Design in Ship Building, Tokyo-Japan, (1977), pp. 73-79. 3. URL-1:, 2013. 4. Ueda, Y., Rashed, S.M.H. : ISUM (Idealized Structural Unit

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B. Mousavi, A. Rahrovi and S. Kheradmand

.J.R.: Computation of Trailing-Edge Noise due to Turbulent Flow over an Airfoil , AIAA Aeroacoustics Journal Vol. 40, pp.2206-2216, 2002. 25. Caro S., Ploumhans P., Gallez X.: A new formulation based on Lighthill's Analogy applied to an idealized Automotive HVAC Blower using AcuSolve and Actran/ LA , Proceedings of 11th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, No. 3015, Monterey, USA, 2005. 26. Damiano C.: Aeroacoustics research in Europe: Te CEAS-ASC report on 2009 highlights , Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 329, Issue 22, 25, pp. 4810-4828, 2010. 27. Yu-cun P., Huai

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A. Durán

). 2 The mathematical model 2.1 On the derivation The two-layer interface problem for internal wave propagation, of interest for the present paper, is idealized in Figure 1 . This consists of two inviscid, homogeneous, incompressible fluids of depths d i , i = 1, 2, with d 2 > d 1 and densities ρ i , i = 1, 2 with ρ 2 > ρ 1 . The upper and lower layers are respectively bounded above and below by a rigid horizontal plane, while the deviation of the interface from a level of rest, denoted by ζ , is supposed to be a graph over the bottom