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Viera Plechová

Abstract

The article deals with the ideas of humanity and morality as reflected in the works of R. W. Emerson, the main representative of an intellectual movement called American transcendentalism. It conveys basic facts about the movement and focuses on the key aspects of Emerson’s transcendental philosophy, particularly his concept of the Over-soul and his concept of Nature, which gave his humanistic philosophy a religious and moral accent. Due to it, Emerson’s religious humanism also became the basis of American democratic individualism. The article offers insight into Emerson’s ideas on morality and ethical behaviour, which challenge us to live in harmony with God and nature.

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Valentina Rădulescu

Abstract

Violence and its devastating effects challenge writers more than ever. Based on the novel L’Attentat [The Attack] (Julliard, 2005), by the Algerian writer Yasmina Khadra, this paper aims to demonstrate that the writing of violence is both the consequence and the mirror of today’s world convulsions. The analytical approach is focused on the functions of this type of writing, the various forms of violence and their problematic aspects, as well as on the relation of a discourse explaining terrorism with a humanist pacifist discourse, as it appears in the novel.

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Alina Nowicka-Jeżowa

Summary

Based on earlier research, and especially Tadeusz Ulewicz’s landmark study Iter Romano- -Italicum Polonorum, or the Intellectual and Cultural Links between Poland and Italy in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (1999) this article examines the influence of Rome - in its role as the Holy See and a centre of learning and the arts - on Poland’s culture in the 15th and 16th century as well as on the activities of Polish churchmen, scholars and writers who came to the Eternal City. The aim of the article is to trace the role of the emerging Humanist themes and attitudes on the shape of the cultural exchange in question. It appears that the Roman connection was a major factor in the history of Polish Humanism - its inner development, its transformations, and the ideological and artistic choices made by the successive generations of the Polish elite. In the 15th century the Roman inspirations helped to initiate the Humanist impulse in Poland, while in the 16th century they stimulated greater diversity and a search for one’s own way of development. In the post-Tridentine epoch they became a potent element of the Poland’s new cultural formation. Against the background of these generalizations, the article presents the cultural profiles of four poets, Mikołaj of Hussów, Klemens Janicjusz, Jan Kochanowski, and Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński. They symbolize the four phases of the Polish Humanist tradition, which draw their distinctive identities from looking up to the Roman model

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Daniela Rogobete

Abstract

This paper dwells upon Kamala Markandaya’s construction of motherhood in postindependence rural India as depicted in her 1955 novel, “Nectar in a Sieve”. Caught between changing times, between colonial and postcolonial paradigms, perennial traditions and shifting values, different world views and cultural systems, Markandaya’s main character finds solace and strength in her philosophy of hope and endurance

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Alina Nowicka -Jeżowa

Summary

The article tries to outline the position of Piotr Skarga in the Jesuit debates about the legacy of humanist Renaissance. The author argues that Skarga was fully committed to the adaptation of humanist and even medieval ideas into the revitalized post-Tridentine Catholicism. Skarga’s aim was to reformulate the humanist worldview, its idea of man, system of values and political views so that they would fit the doctrine of the Roman Catholic church. In effect, though, it meant supplanting the pluralist and open humanist culture by a construct as solidly Catholic as possible. He sifted through, verified, and re-interpreted the humanist material: as a result the humanist myth of the City of the Sun was eclipsed by reminders of the transience of all earthly goods and pursuits; elements of the Greek and Roman tradition were reconnected with the authoritative Biblical account of world history; and man was reinscribed into the theocentric perspective. Skarga brought back the dogmas of the original sin and sanctifying grace, reiterated the importance of asceticism and self-discipline, redefined the ideas of human dignity and freedom, and, in consequence, came up with a clear-cut, integrist view of the meaning and goal of the good life as well as the proper mission of the citizen and the nation. The polemical edge of Piotr Skarga’s cultural project was aimed both at Protestantism and the Erasmian tendency within the Catholic church. While strongly coloured by the Ignatian spirituality with its insistence on rigorous discipline, a sense of responsibility for the lives of other people and the culture of the community, and a commitment to the heroic ideal of a miles Christi, taking headon the challenges of the flesh, the world, Satan, and the enemies of the patria and the Church, it also went a long way to adapt the Jesuit model to Poland’s socio-cultural conditions and the mentality of its inhabitants.

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Ladislav Nagy

Abstract

This article deals with novels by Lawrence Norfolk which are read with a focus on their visual quality and the way they depict history. It is argued that Norfolk’s historical novels are unique in their portrayal of “landscapes of history”, large canvases in which individual characters play marginal, or a rather insignificant role. This approach distinguishes Norfolk from much of contemporary historical fiction, albeit at times this strategy might not be wholly satisfactory from a critical perspective. However, the article claims that Norfolk’s novels are intellectually inspiring since, similar to landscape, they invite a certain gaze, yet deny us the possibility of naming, of conceptualising. They provide readers with impressive vistas on history, which is seen as something too large to understand and penetrate. In this the novels are anti-humanistic. Individual characters (and their actions) are insignificant, or significant only to such an extent that they subscribe to some mythical framework, as Norfolk shows in, arguably, his best novel, In the Shape of a Boar (2000).

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Iryna Pinich

References Aers, D., Cook, J. & Punter, D. (2016). Romanticism and ideology: studies in English writing 1765-1830 . London: Routledge. Ahmed, S. (2012). The cultural politics of emotion . New York, London: Routledge. Andersen, P.A. & Guerrero, L.K. (1998). Principles of communication and emotion in social interaction. In Handbook of communication and emotion . Andersen, P.A. & Guerrero, L.K. (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press, p. 49-96. Arkhipova, A.V. (2001). Blok and Dostoyevsky: crisis of humanism. In Dostoevsky. Materials and

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Nataliya Panasenko

. et al. (2010). Bakhtin's theory of the literary chronotope: Reflections, applications, perspectives . Gent: Academia Press. Beznisko, N.A. (2003). Originality of the concept of humanism in short stories by Ray Bradbury and Anton Pavlovich Tchekhov . / Beznisko N.A. Svoyeobrazie kontsepta humanizma v rasskazakh Reya Bredberi i Antona Pavlovicha Chekhova . / Безниско Н.А. Своебразие концепции гуманизма в рассказах Рэя Брэдбери и Антона Павловича Чехова . Available at: http://docus.me/d/677278/ Biography and creative activity of Ray Douglas Bradbury

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Ali Arian

Abstract

It seems that the very important role of literature is its transcendental appeal. Literature knows no boundary and it ties whole nations even if they are politically segregated. The present paper tries to trace some of the salient features of humanism and Sufism, such as Absolute Unity, simplicity, selfknowing, purity, solitude, loving one another and some others in Henry David Thoreau’s Walden. This American writer, as an ardent follower of the Transcendental Club in America and the holy scriptures of the East, was known as the hero of simplicity in the U.S.A. Being a protester against government and society, he dwelled for more than two years alone in Walden Pond to see the mysteries of life and to find Reality and the Almighty. He believed Nature to be the best teacher and opined that every parcel of nature is a sign of God. He came to know about the holy scriptures of the East, especially those of the Indians and strongly used them in his writings, especially in Walden and the Week. Therefore such a person who seeks God, indeed, can be familiar with elements of humanism and Sufism, and one can find such elements in Walden by pondering its text

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Martin Šemelák

. 2011. “Human Rights Storytelling and Trauma Narrative in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go” In Journal of Human Rights , 10:1, 1-16 Sartre, J. P. 1946. Existentialism is Humanism . From a public lecture given in 1946. Translated by Philip Mairet. Available at: < http://www.mrsmoser.com/uploads/8/5/0/1/8501319/english_11_ib_-_no_exit__existentialism_is_a_humanism_-_sartre.pdf > Schopenhauer, A. 1891. On Suicide In Studies in Pessimism . Translated by T. B. Saunders. Adeliade: The University of Adelaide Library. eBook file. Available at: < https