). Physiological performance and general histology of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., from the Baltic and North seas. Neth. J. Sea Res ., (30), 11−21. DOI:10.1016/0077-7579(92)90041-C. Glavić, N., Vlašić, M., Bolotin, J., Dupčić Radić, I., Hrustić, E., Kožul, V. & Antolović N. (2018). The size driven variations in physiological responses of the Bearded Horse Mussel Modiolus barbatus and the Noah’s Ark Shell Arca noae . Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc ., 18, 1355−1362. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v18_12_03. Hamer, B., Jakšić, Ž., Pavičić-Hamer, D., Perić, L., Medaković
Matea Vlašić, Nikša Glavić, Jakša Bolotin, Enis Hrustić and Iris Dupčić Radić
Aleksandra Jezierska-Thöle, Marta Gwiaździńska-Goraj and Łukasz Wiśniewski
Organic farming is part of a sustainable development model; at the same time it is becoming a prerequisite for the multifunctional development of rural areas. The main aim of this study is to identify the state and analyse changes in the development of organic agriculture in Poland as well as to present the possibilities for its development. The time horizon of the study covers the years 2003 to 2015. The basis of the research was an analysis of the literature, the Report of the Chief Inspectorate of Trade Quality of Agriculture and Food (IJHARS), and national empirical research; it also includes an analysis of the results of surveys carried out on organic farms in the summer of 2016, as well as our own observations. The study showed that in the years 2003-2015 Poland saw a rapid increase in the number and area of organic farms due in part to the introduction of EU subsidies. Spatial analysis of the proportions of farms by voivodeship shows that in 2015 most were recorded in Warmia-Mazuria, Podlasie and West Pomerania. Similar to the increase in the number of organic farms, the years 2003-2015 saw an increased area of organic farmland. Poland is second in the world in terms of growth in the area of organic farms. In the years 2003-2014 the average size of an organic farm remained at about 25 ha and was higher than the average size of conventional farms (10 ha). In 2014 the crop structure was dominated by fodder plants (35.8%), and meadows and pastures (31.5%). In terms of livestock production, cattle and horses had the biggest share.
Kuat Saparov, Jiri Chlachula and Aigul Yeginbayeva
Russian). Outram A.K., Stear N.A., Bendrey R., Olsen S., Kasparov A., Zaibert V., Thorpe N., Evershed R.P., 2009. The earliest horse harnessing and milking. Science 323 (5919): 1332–1335. Pacekov U.M., Jukova A.A., Alekseyev A.G., Artemeva E.L., 1990. Minerals of Kazakhstan, IGS AS KazSSR, Alma Ata, 196 p. (in Russian). Plit J., Myga-Piątek M., 2014, The degree of landscape openness as a manifestation of cultural metamorphose. Questiones Geographicae 33(3): 145–154. Polosmak N.V., 2001. Inhabitants of Ukok . Infolio, Novosibirsk, 334 p (in
Anna Jarocińska, Małgorzata Białczak and Łukasz Sławik
, horse chestnut, small-leaved lime, and conifers: white fir, European larch and two varieties each of pine and spruce. The trees had diameters of 3 metres or more. The variables were estimated visually in comparison with trees in optimal conditions for their given type at that stage of their vegetative season. Values were determined in the range of 0 to 100% for each variable. Method The method consisted of a few stages ( Fig. 2 ). The initial stage of image processing involved radiometric, geometric and atmospheric correction. Spectral reflectance curves from in
Marta Szal, Mirosława Kupryjanowicz and Mariusz Wyczółkowski
. Nowe metody, nowe perspektywy. Muzeum im. W. Kqtrzynskiego, Kqtrzyn. Wyczółkowski, M., Makowiecki, D., 2009. Horse sacrifices in Prussia in the early Middle Ages. Ritual area in Poganowo Site IV, Olsztyn Province (Poland), Archaeologia Baltica 11, 295304. Wyczółkowski, M., Szal, M., Kupryjanowicz, M., Smolska, E., 2013. Kompleks osadniczy w Poganowie, pow. kqtrzynski, stanowisko IV: wstqpne wyniki badan interdyscyplinarnych. In Kobylinski, Z., (ed.), Grodziska Warmii i Mazur 1. Stan wiedzy i perspektywy badawcze. Archaeologica
Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms), goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing). Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.
Longina Nadolna and Marta Żyszkowska
Characteristics of grasslands in the Polish Sudetes in view of fodder production potential and grassland protection
Mountain region of the Sudetes has a productive potential that allows for obtaining high quality fodder from grasslands. The potential is facilitated by the fact that 94% of grassland area is situated below the elevation of 700 m a.s.l. and 75% of them on slopes inclined less 9°. Meadows and pastures of the highest economic importance cover an area larger than 50 000 ha, most of them situated in the Kłodzko district. The analysis of ruminant and horse stock in 2008 revealed that the possibilities of fodder production largely exceeded the demands. Productive use of meadows and pastures loses importance, particularly in the Jelenia Góra district, despite financial support within the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU.
Halina Jankowska-Huflejt and Jerzy Prokopowicz
The study was conducted in 2007 with the inquiry method in 30 farms which specialised in livestock production based on own grasslands and participated in the Rural Development Programme in the years 2004-2006. The mean farm area was 19.69 ha (from 2.2 ha to182.0 ha) and farms were divided into 4 groups: 1-10; 10-20; 20-50 and >50 ha. The share of permanent grasslands was 53.8% on average. The crop structure was subject to the production of bulk feeds and feed grain (oats), cereal mixtures, triticale and barley. The mean share of cereals was 78.5 %, root crops - 9.4 % and legumes - 2.1 %. The highest livestock (cattle, pigs, horses, poultry) density (mean of 0.5 LU per ha of agricultural land) was in farms from the group of 20-50 ha. Both the farm investments in fixed assets and average direct costs of plant and animal production were low. The revenue from agricultural production was medium to low. The proportion of subsidies from the RDP was high (17%). Gross margin in farms was medium and low. Its value per 1 ha of agricultural land (AL) and per capita increased with the increase of farm surface area (except for a group of 20.1-50.0 ha). The effectiveness of fixed assets was high, its index ranged from 0.39 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.43. Only 23% of surveyed farms had a chance of further development.
Anişoara Stratu, Naela Costică and Mihai Costică
, Pb, Zn pollution in Cluj - Napoca, reflected by foliar accumulation of five species located within intense traffic area. Note 1. Results recorded in 2010, ProEnvironment, 5, 195-199. Petrova Slaveya, Iurukova Lilyana, Velcheva Iliana, (2014), Possibilities of using deciduous tree species in trace element biomonitoring in an urban area (Plovdiv, Bulgaria), Atmospheric Pollution Research, 5, 196 - 202. Petrova Slaveya, Iurukova Lilyana, Velcheva Iliana, (2012), Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town
Bernd Pölling, María-José Prados, Bianca Maria Torquati, Giulia Giacchè, Xavier Recasens, Chiara Paffarini, Oscar Alfranca and Wolf Lorleberg
context of urbanization: Examples from the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen. Geografisk Tidsskrift (Danish Journal of Geography), 106(2): 21–34. DUPRAS, J., PARCERISAS, L., BRENNER, J. (2016): Using ecosystem services valuation to measure the economic impacts of land-use changes on the Spanish Mediterranean coast (El Maresme, 1850–2010). Regional Environmental Change, 16(4): 1075–1088. ELGÅKER, H., WILTON, B. (2008): Horse farms as a factor for development and innovation in the urban-rural fringe with examples from Europe and Northern America. Forest