References Alberdi, M. T. (2010): Estudio de los caballos de los yacimientos de Fuente Nueva-3 y Barranco León-5 (Granada) [Analysis of the horse remains from Fuente Nueva-3 y Barranco León-5 (Granada)]. – In: Toro, I., Martínez-Navarro, B., Agustí, J. (eds), Ocupaciones humanas en el Pleistoceno inferior y medio de la Cuenca de Guadix-Baza. Arqueología Monografías, Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura, pp. 291–306. (in Spanish) Alberdi, M. T., Caloi, L., Palombo, M. R. (1988): The Quaternary fauna of Venosa: Equidae. – Bulletin du Musée d
Maria Rita Palombo and Maria Teresa Alberdi
Matea Vlašić, Nikša Glavić, Jakša Bolotin, Enis Hrustić and Iris Dupčić Radić
). Physiological performance and general histology of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., from the Baltic and North seas. Neth. J. Sea Res ., (30), 11−21. DOI:10.1016/0077-7579(92)90041-C. Glavić, N., Vlašić, M., Bolotin, J., Dupčić Radić, I., Hrustić, E., Kožul, V. & Antolović N. (2018). The size driven variations in physiological responses of the Bearded Horse Mussel Modiolus barbatus and the Noah’s Ark Shell Arca noae . Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc ., 18, 1355−1362. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v18_12_03. Hamer, B., Jakšić, Ž., Pavičić-Hamer, D., Perić, L., Medaković
Michał Ginter, Sofie Gouwy and Stijn Goolaerts
Samples from the Upper Frasnian (Devonian) of Lompret Quarry and Nismes railway section in Dinant Synclinorium, southern Belgium, yielded several chondrichthyan teeth and scales. The teeth belong to three genera: Phoebodus, Cladodoides and Protacrodus. The comparison with selected Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblages from the seas between Laurussia and Gondwana revealed substantial local differences of taxonomic composition due to palaeoenvironmental conditions, such as depth, distance to submarine platforms, oxygenation of water, and possibly also temperature. The assemblage from Belgium, with its high frequency of phoebodonts, is the most similar to that from the Ryauzyak section, South Urals, Russia, and the Horse Spring section, Canning Basin, Australia.
Jarosław Wilczyński, Piotr Wojtal and Jiří Svoboda
Our archaeozoological studies concerns animal remains discovered during fieldworks led by B. Klíma in 1966 – 1967. The study does not include a few bone tools and personal ornaments made from animal teeth. There were analysed 968 remains of different animal species. Among the mammals, the most numerous are bones and teeth of mammoth, horse, wolf, and reindeer. Other taxa are less numerous, but we point out presence of cave lion bones. The quantity of animal remains discovered at Pavlov II is much lower in comparison with other Pavlovian sites from Pavlov-Dolní Věstonice area. The localization of archeological trench, on the periphery/margin of a larger Pavlovian site, most likely had effect on not large number osteological finds. Nevertheless, our study confirms the importance different Pleistocene species in the everyday life of Gravettian hunters-gatherers. They relied not only on herbivores, but also carnivores, such as wolves, wolverines, bears and cave lions.
Małgorzata Danek, Trevor Bell and Colin P. Laroque
Study of soils in St. John’s, Canada showed elevated Pb levels representing a potential ex-posure risk for young children. Old trees growing in the city present a potential annually-resolved record of Pb levels over past centuries that provides important temporal and spatial dimensions to Pb exposure risk assessment. This paper reports the results of our analytical tests to develop a fast, relia-ble and cost-efficient method using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for measuring Pb concentration in annual tree rings from available tree species. Our tests focused on approaches to sample preparation as they affect the laser ablation process, the relative merits of the ablation sampling method, and the response of our available tree species, which have contrasting wood structures, to laser ablation. The range of annual Pb concentrations (ppm) measured for each of the study species were as follows: spruce (0.18–6.42); elm (0.12–7.91); and horse chestnut (0.40–14.09). Our results demonstrate that the cutting procedure for preparing tree cores produced the most consistent Pb concentrations of the three methods, although they each displayed problematic anomalies. The selection of the best laser ablation technique appears to be highly dependent on study species and goals. In general, spot analysis permits detailed and targeted studies of tree-ring struc-tures, but requires careful sampling attention for species with complex wood anatomy. The line scan method is ideal for reconstructing annually resolved element concentrations from trees and to some degree mitigates the complicating issue of intra-ring variability. Horse chestnut was determined to be the best of the available tree species because it exhibited a good response to laser ablation and pro-duced the lowest intra-ring variations in Pb concentration.
Brett Roelofs, Ted Playton, Milo Barham and Kate Trinajstic
A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.
Aleksandra Jezierska-Thöle, Marta Gwiaździńska-Goraj and Łukasz Wiśniewski
Organic farming is part of a sustainable development model; at the same time it is becoming a prerequisite for the multifunctional development of rural areas. The main aim of this study is to identify the state and analyse changes in the development of organic agriculture in Poland as well as to present the possibilities for its development. The time horizon of the study covers the years 2003 to 2015. The basis of the research was an analysis of the literature, the Report of the Chief Inspectorate of Trade Quality of Agriculture and Food (IJHARS), and national empirical research; it also includes an analysis of the results of surveys carried out on organic farms in the summer of 2016, as well as our own observations. The study showed that in the years 2003-2015 Poland saw a rapid increase in the number and area of organic farms due in part to the introduction of EU subsidies. Spatial analysis of the proportions of farms by voivodeship shows that in 2015 most were recorded in Warmia-Mazuria, Podlasie and West Pomerania. Similar to the increase in the number of organic farms, the years 2003-2015 saw an increased area of organic farmland. Poland is second in the world in terms of growth in the area of organic farms. In the years 2003-2014 the average size of an organic farm remained at about 25 ha and was higher than the average size of conventional farms (10 ha). In 2014 the crop structure was dominated by fodder plants (35.8%), and meadows and pastures (31.5%). In terms of livestock production, cattle and horses had the biggest share.
commodity summaries 2015: U.S. Geological Survey, 196 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/70140094.  Bremsts or horse tracks. Studánka. 2010, XVIII, 5 p.
Martina Roblíčková, Vlastislav Káňa and Miriam Nývltová Fišáková
Barová Cave is located in the central part of the Moravian Karst (the Czech Republic), on the right slope of Josefovské Valley; it is the outflow part of Rudické propadání (Rudice Sink) – Býčí skála (Bull Rock) cave system. Even since its discovery by A. Sobol in 1947, Barová Cave has been known as important palaeontological site, with well-preserved fauna of the Late Pleistocene. In the summer of 2011, a landslide of sediments revealed yet unexamined fossiliferous positions, and started the current research activity. There were discovered skeletal remains of these 21 taxa of vertebrates between 2011 – 2017 in Barová Cave: bear from the cave bear group (Ursus ex gr. spelaeus), cave lion (Panthera spelaea), wolf (Canis lupus), cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), brown bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), fox, probably red (Vulpes cf. vulpes), marten (Martes cf. martes), alpine ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), aurochs or bison (Bos primigenius/Bison priscus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), horse (Equus sp.), woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), hare (Lepus sp.), lemming (Dicrostonyx sp.), bank vole (Myodes sp.), jackdaw (Corvus monedula) and probably northern pintail (Anas aff. acuta). Animal osteological material from sectors 2, 3, 4 and R4 from the Under the Ladder test pit in Barová Cave is analysed in detail in this paper. Bears from the group of cave bears completely dominate, the total sum of bones determined as bear bones make up nearly 95% of all determined material. The cave lion bones comprise nearly 3% of the determined osteological material; bones of a wolf represent about 1.2%, bones of cave hyena approximately 0.5% and bones of ungulates approximately 0.2% of all determined material (Tab. 1). From the MNI point of view the bears from the cave bear group dominate too. Bear bones belonged to at least 40 individuals (70.2% of all minimally present individuals) of all age categories (Tabs 1, 2). The predominance of bones of bears from the cave bear group in Barová Cave shows that the cave was mainly used as a bear wintering site. The presence of bear cub bones proved that the cave also served females as a birthing place. Some bones of bears from the group of cave bears and several bones of cave lions, cave hyenas and wolves also show evidence of bite and gnawing marks by carnivores or scavengers (cave lions, cave hyenas, wolves and perhaps cave bears). This suggests that hibernating bears, and more often the cadavers or isolated bones of dead individuals sometimes served as a food source. The seasonality analysis indicates that the time of death varied most frequently near the end of wintering season (spring/summer). The large amount of bear bone material leads to the consideration that the bears from the cave bear group used Barová Cave over a period longer than thousand years.
Martin Sabol, Diana Slyšková, Silvia Bodoriková, Tomáš Čejka, Andrej Čerňanský, Martin Ivanov, Peter Joniak, Marianna Kováčová and Csaba Tóth
) Musil, R. (1968): Die Mammutmolaren von Předmostí [Mammoth molars from Předmostí]. – Paläontologische Abhandlungen, Abteilung A, Paläozoologie, 3(1): 1–198. Musil, R. (1972): Die Pferdenzähne aus der Lokalität Gánovce [Horse teeth from Gánovce site]. – Acta Musei Moraviae, 56-57: 139–146. Petrbok, J. (1937): Ptačí pero z doby ledové na Slovensku [A bird feather from the Ice Age in Slovakia]. – Národní politika, 28.8.1937. (in Czech) Petrbok, J. (1939): Jeřáb ( Grus sp. cf. cinerea Bechst) v risswürmienských travertinech na Slovensku. [Crane ( Grus