Longina Nadolna and Marta Żyszkowska
Characteristics of grasslands in the Polish Sudetes in view of fodder production potential and grassland protection
Mountain region of the Sudetes has a productive potential that allows for obtaining high quality fodder from grasslands. The potential is facilitated by the fact that 94% of grassland area is situated below the elevation of 700 m a.s.l. and 75% of them on slopes inclined less 9°. Meadows and pastures of the highest economic importance cover an area larger than 50 000 ha, most of them situated in the Kłodzko district. The analysis of ruminant and horse stock in 2008 revealed that the possibilities of fodder production largely exceeded the demands. Productive use of meadows and pastures loses importance, particularly in the Jelenia Góra district, despite financial support within the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU.
Halina Jankowska-Huflejt and Jerzy Prokopowicz
The study was conducted in 2007 with the inquiry method in 30 farms which specialised in livestock production based on own grasslands and participated in the Rural Development Programme in the years 2004-2006. The mean farm area was 19.69 ha (from 2.2 ha to182.0 ha) and farms were divided into 4 groups: 1-10; 10-20; 20-50 and >50 ha. The share of permanent grasslands was 53.8% on average. The crop structure was subject to the production of bulk feeds and feed grain (oats), cereal mixtures, triticale and barley. The mean share of cereals was 78.5 %, root crops - 9.4 % and legumes - 2.1 %. The highest livestock (cattle, pigs, horses, poultry) density (mean of 0.5 LU per ha of agricultural land) was in farms from the group of 20-50 ha. Both the farm investments in fixed assets and average direct costs of plant and animal production were low. The revenue from agricultural production was medium to low. The proportion of subsidies from the RDP was high (17%). Gross margin in farms was medium and low. Its value per 1 ha of agricultural land (AL) and per capita increased with the increase of farm surface area (except for a group of 20.1-50.0 ha). The effectiveness of fixed assets was high, its index ranged from 0.39 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.43. Only 23% of surveyed farms had a chance of further development.
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