Media Teachers’ Self-Image, Positioning and Educational Focus
, language or arts subjects or as smaller electives in their curriculum ( Carlsson, 2008 ; Lavender, Tufte, & Lamish, 2003 ). However, the study programme of Media and Communication in Norway, hereafter called MC, provides a unique case in the international field of media education in being a policy-answer to the challenges of the 21 st century. Established in 2000, this upper secondary programme with full-time media teachers, gives access to both vocational diplomas and to further university studies. In the Norwegian school system, 16–19 year olds typically choose
significantly more likely to be simultaneously disconnected from local, national, and international news in 2012 than they were in 1996. This model also shows that education is a significant predictor of being disconnected: compared to respondents with a college or graduate degree, those with less than a high school education and those with a high school (and perhaps some college) education are substantially more likely to be disconnected. Gender differences are not significant in this model, but age is a significant, negative predictor of being disconnected.
Helle Sjøvaag, Truls André Pedersen and Ole Martin Lægreid
. Coupled with high trust, and the absence of freesheets, Norwegian local newspapers have therefore retained high reach in local markets, in many cases over 60 per cent (see for instance Amedia, 2018 , 2019 ). However, audiences for local newspapers in Norway mainly consist of readers over the age of 67, predominantly women and people with high school education or shorter university degrees ( SSB, 2018 ). It remains a problem, then, for many local newspapers that their readership consists largely of older age groups who prefer the print edition (e.g. Jenkins & Nielsen
Elsebeth Frey, Ragnhild K. Olsen and G. Anthony Giannoumis
for journalism education ( Hultén & Edwardsson, 2017 ).
In light of the increased calls for experiential learning opportunities in journalism and for academic research into such opportunities ( Parks, 2015 ), this article presents a small-scale study that investigates cooperation between journalism and computer science students in a joint development project offered at Oslo Metropolitan University. The computer science students came from the fields of applied information technology and software engineering. Drawing on the work of Galison (1997) , Collins and
been a conscious priority, implicating a high level of what we call visual editorial competence . This concept contains not only a high editorial regard for the photographic image as a journalistic tool, but includes an above average inclusion of photojournalism on an organisational level.
The aim of the study was to explore how the restructuring of Norwegian media organisations affects photojournalism, according to photo editors and photo department leaders. We chose six Norwegian local, regional and national media outlets for a pilot study and included the
Media practices as reconversion work in a globalising world
Johan Lindell and Martin Danielsson
: “woman” (reference: man); “travels outside of the Nordic countries more than twice a year” (ref: have never been outside Nordic countries/never, 1–2/year); Travels outside Nordic countries once or twice/year (ref: >2 times/year, have never been outside Nordic countries); “university educated” (ref: low, middle-low, middle-higheducation); “political stance-taking” (ref: neither “left” nor “right”); urban residency (ref: non-urban residency); working class (ref: farmer, white collar worker, higher white collar worker, entrepreneur).
We now turn to our interviews
A National Comparison of Role Perceptions and Ethical Stances among Finnish Political Journalists
et al. 2008 ). Indeed, journalistic ethics were still in their infancy, with some ethical rules – although of very limited scope – having been published in the late 1920s and late 1950s ( Koljonen 2013 ).
In line with developments in Sweden and Denmark (cf. Jonsson 2002 ; Thomsen & Søllinge 1991 ), journalistic professionalisation and differentiation from the political system began in the 1960s. At this time, formal education in journalism expanded; a new self-regulatory mechanism was introduced and newspapers increasingly began to cut their formal ties to
data analysis. Methods such as machine learning can uncover relations between variables and measures that the human mind may not think to explore; moreover, these methods can learn individual preferences from online data to accommodate personalized messages. This implies that any form of information can be targeted at the individual, including commercial and political messages and even news.
In today’s high-choice media environment, social media are becoming increasingly important to news distribution ( Krumsvik, 2017 ). Facebook stands out as the most-used social
Linn A.C. Sandberg, Ulf Bjereld, Karina Bunyik, Markus Forsberg and Richard Johansson
-right dimension) differ when the two media formats are compared; that is, were issues on either of the two dimensions more salient on Twitter than in the debates?
Sweden has a multiparty system, including parties that mainly compete on a left-right dimension and newer parties such as the Green party and populist radical right parties, so it provides an interesting context in which to study the response to the issues that were addressed in the debates. Later in the text we provide a more detailed discussion of the case of Sweden, but first we address the notion of issue