in older age are related to the advancing of age, being a female, divorcement and widowhood, living alone, low education and economical level, insomnia, the co-existence of a chronic illness and use of multiple drugs ( Chang-Quan et al., 2010 ; Çınar & Kartal 2008 ; Weyerer et al., 2008 ).
Some studies suggest that eating a Mediterranean diet may help prevent depression. A main finding of the review was that there seemed to be a strong association between eating a Mediterranean-style diet and a reduced risk of developing symptoms of depression or being
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
vulnerable when they have one of the following characteristics:
low socioeconomic status,
a tendency to blame negative events on themselves,
lack of sufficient amounts of sleep, food, nutrition, or exercise,
prior history of psychological or behavioural disorder (such as attachment-related problems or anxiety), or a low tolerance for stress,
lack of social support (from peers or parents),
school circumstances and academic difficulties,
multiple co-occurring stressors, for example, living in a family environment with high conflict or in a neighbourhood with
Lara N. Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Johannes Hertel, Katharina Wittfeld, René Walk, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke and Hans J. Grabe
of obesity. However, it still remains unclear which sub-dimensions of childhood adversity are linked to high body weight.
Depressive symptoms and BMI
Recurrent depressive disorder has been repeatedly associated with higher BMI values ( Farmer et al. 2008 ). A meta-analysis of 16 studies resumed, that depressed compared to non-depressed subjects have a higher risk to become obese ( Blaine 2008 ). Moreover, the association between depression and higher BMI values was stronger in females than in males and the risk was particularly higher for adolescent females
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
single brain region, but rather implicates an interactive network with distributed activity in time and space. Traditional models have often assumed that facial expression and executive control are processed along separate pathways. However, evidence from fMRI suggests that emotional processing can strongly affect brain systems responsible for both face recognition and memory, with fear-related modulations of face processing driven by amygdala signals implicating not only fusiform cortex, but also earlier visual areas in occipital cortex involved in cognitive responses
susceptible to feelings of fear, shame, rejection, and guilt, and high self-discrepancy would lead to low self-esteem and a negative self-concept.
Although ample studies concentrated on pinpointing how self-concept develops and how it is influenced in youth, an emerging line of studies started to focus on identifying the directions and nature of relationship between both positive and negative beliefs about the self and others, and the social context, concentrating specifically on gay and lesbian youth ( Vincke & van Heeringen, 2002 ; Snapp et al., 2015 ; Wilkerson et al
Impact of disaster on health has long been discussed in the scientific community. Natural disasters affect millions of people physically and psychologically all over the world (Norris, et al., 2002) and the consequences are widespread and may be long term. About 30–50% of the disaster affected people suffer from moderate to severe psychological distresses (WHO, 2017) due to high exposure to the trauma, experiencing injury or death of loved one and reduced social support ( Brooks, et al., 2018 ). Among the disaster victims, post-traumatic stress
parental stress reach distressing levels ( Miranda, et al., 2007 ). Children are less compliant with their parents’ instructions and this creates further situations of conflict. Due to the high stress levels, the parent-child relationship is often compromised. Parents might become less patient, are more aware of disruptive behaviour and become more rejecting and less warm towards the child (Bögels et al., 2010), which in turn lowers the sense of self-concept among adolescents with ADHD ( Putnick et al., 2008 ). On the other hand, parental stress may cause subsequent
. Only if the physician is aware of the phenomenon can the symptom be sought by direct questioning. Compared to daytime incontinence, the presence of nocturnal enuresis is less likely to be volunteered as a result of the associated embarrassment, and so, patients may suffer in silence or even discontinue the medication. By raising awareness, physicians might better identify and manage the condition and gather more accurate data on prevalence. This would allow early recognition, patient education and management. Compliance would be improved, thus improving mental health