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Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

used for accurate diagnostic or therapeutic procedures: optimization of image quality for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, development of radiation therapy equipment (high energy linear accelerators with sophisticated options for dose delivery, computerized treatment planning systems, record and verify systems, etc.) and overall integration of computers into the routine clinical work. This is reflected in the huge increase of medical radiological procedures in the world; presently there are around 4 billion x-ray examinations, 35 million nuclear

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Impact of body-mass factors on setup displacement during pelvic irradiation in patients with lower abdominal cancer

binary ogistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the patients were dichotomized to high- and low-risk groups and the required CTV-PTV margins were calculated for each group. To differentiate the risk groups, optimal cutoffs of the BMFs in predicting the setup errors were chosen through receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. To confirm the validity, the scoring system was applied to test the validation cohort. The magnitude of the setup displacement between groups was examined by the chi-square test. In this study, P < .05 was considered statistically

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Recurrence rate in regional lymph nodes in 737 patients with follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasms

Introduction High-resolution ultrasound (US) examination with a 10–13 MHz linear probe detected thyroid nodules in 68% of randomly selected individuals and 18% of nodes were larger than 10 mm. 1 Diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and cytology of a thyroid nodule is recommended for nodules ≥ 1cm with a high suspicion US pattern. 2 , 3 The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology is used to report thyroid nodule FNAB cytology. 4 , 5 The Bethesda IV category comprises follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm and

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Efficacy and durability of radiopaque gelified ethanol in management of herniated discs

minimally invasive image-guided techniques, all of which are based on percutaneous introduction of trocar into the fibrous ring through which chemical, thermal or ablative devices are introduced. All these techniques target reduction of intra-discal pressure. Chemonucleolysis was introduced in 1963 by Smith 6 and was the treatment of choice for more than 2 decades, primarily based on intradiscal injection of chymopapain, achieving high level of treatment success rate, ranging between 80–90% in cervical and lumbar hernias. 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 This substance was

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Ultralow anterior resection with implantation of gentamicin-collagen sponge and no defunctioning stoma: anastomotic leakage and local cancer relapse

significance was assumed at p value < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed by a professional statistician (PB) using R-software ver. 3.2 (free environment for statistical computing and graphics). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Institutional Review Board. This research was financed through a statutory subsidy by the Minister of Science and Higher Education as a part of the research grant ST.C280.17.010 (record number in the Simple System). Results GCS was applied without any technical difficulties and was

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Protective/restorative role of the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the radioiodine-induced salivary gland damage in rats

cytoprotective/regenerative agents against the effects of radiation. Our main goal was to determine whether ADMSC had a regenerative effect besides its cytoprotective effect. The study protocol was approved by Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Research Hospital’s Animal Ethics Board (2013/38), and instructions of local/international animal research were followed. The national/international regulations of radiation safety and waste disposal for contaminated secretion and materials of radio-exposed rats were also followed. The study groups were designed as follows: 1

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Electrochemotherapy by pulsed electromagnetic field treatment (PEMF) in mouse melanoma B16F10 in vivo

Introduction Electroporation is a physical method enabling delivery of impermeable drugs, macromolecules, proteins and genetic material (plasmid DNA, siRNA, miRNA) into cells. 1 Electroporation is related to the induced transmembrane voltage which if sufficiently high, enables the formation of temporary structural changes in the plasma membrane and increases its permeability for molecules otherwise deprived of transmembrane transport mechanisms. 2 – 5 Electroporation of cells is predominantly induced by pulsed electric fields, which are generated with the

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In silico selection approach to develop DNA aptamers for a stem-like cell subpopulation of non-small lung cancer adenocarcinoma cell line A549

random oligonucleotides by a process called SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment), reviewed by Šmuc and Ulrich. 3 In brief, the SELEX process comprises five main steps: binding, partition, elution, amplification, and conditioning in a reiterative and stepwise manner, which is narrowed down to a homogeneous population of high-target affinity and selectivity sequences. 4 The here used Cell-SELEX approach is a modification of the original of the original method, where a selection of aptamers binding to cell surface epitopes of target cells, i

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Radiotherapy of glioblastoma 15 years after the landmark Stupp’s trial: more controversies than standards?

, and it is not typically considered controversial in patients younger than 60–65 years. 21 The effect of high doses in adjuvant RT of GBM was shown in 1979 by a retrospective analysis performed by the German “Brain Tumor Study Group”. 23 The best result (median overall survival of 42 weeks) was achieved by WBRT with 60 Gy compared to 55 (36 weeks) or 50 Gy (28 weeks) 23 and with significant difference between those receiving 60 versus 50 Gy. Doses above 60 Gy did not lead to any benefit regardless of RT technique used. With WBRT, increasing to 70 Gy was not

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Dendritic cell profiles in the inflamed colonic mucosa predict the responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors in inflammatory bowel disease

uncontrolled inflammation in IBD. Several studies have shown a lack of immature DCs in the peripheral blood of IBD patients and an increased number of activated DCs in the inflamed gut tissue. 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , A high concentration of TNFa in the inflamed mucosa drives the activation of DCs. 21 , 22 , 23 , TNFa inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, induce mucosal healing in patients with IBD by suppressing TNFa driven DC activation. 24 , 25 Current treatment goals are the induction and maintenance of remission to provide a better quality of life, to reduce

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