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5. Imperial County
with high technology. The 2.4% of Medellín residents who can’t read or write are naturally excluded from the full benefits of the Smart City. What’s more, the overall level of education is still on the way to improvement, with an average of 10 years of education in Medellín and a great degree of polarisation of access to school. Thus, there is a large section of society with only basic education with the need to get additional training on information technologies ( Medellín Como Vamos 2017 ). Yet, Medellín offers such courses; until 2014 more than 93,000 people
; Theodore & Peck 2011 ), knowledge exchange is oftentimes framed within a web of learning that obscures the economy of policy translation and the nexus of global intermediaries.
Such limited reflection on learning has been detrimental to the evaluation of bus rapid transit [BRT], a bus-based urban transport system hyped around the world as the cheap and cheerful solution to cities with deteriorating air quality, long commute times, increased greenhouse gas emissions, high rates of traffic fatalities and inferior road conditions. The Institute for Transportation and
interests of different stakeholders, or at least its results are not as clear as could be expected. In this paper I use the example of the High Line Park in New York ( David & Hammond 2011 ; Millington 2015 ; Reichl 2016 ). This urban space is an example of so-called privately owned public space ( Kayden 2000 ): a mixture of a real public area with space that is managed by a non-governmental organisation called Friends of the High Line. The park is built on a former industrial railway line in the western part of Manhattan. In the past it was very dilapidated, and both
architectonical barriers, like high kerbstones, lack of ramps and slides, narrow pavements, destroyed and crooked surfaces, the lack of resting places, all of which enable social interactions); or on a city-wide scale, like inadequately arranged and abandoned areas, spreading out mainly along city transit routes; excessive width of roads; lack of public spaces creating a continuous system; lack of bike paths; lack of well-arranged buffer zones between fragmented areas; and tram and bus stops not adapted for the disabled and for people with limited mobility. The specific types
even high income households qualify as living in fuel poverty when they need to spend more than 10% of their earnings on energy bills ( Boardman 1991 ; Legendre & Ricci 2015 ). The phenomenon wherein better-off households that are not in fact fuel poor nevertheless benefit from public support programmes that target fuel poverty is called ‘leakage’. Leakage calls into question the methodological approach of many governmental programmes and projects based in the UK and in other countries, where implementation of the 10% income definition of fuel poverty creates the
Katarzyna Goch, Szymon Ochota, Monika Piotrkowska and Zuzanna Kunert
accessibility, these mostly occurring within the large-panel system-built settlements with high population density, which are found to the north of Warsaw. These challenges are commonly recognised in Poland ( Rybka, Kozlowski, & Plewako 2007 ; Majewski and Beim 2008 ) and other Central and Eastern European countries ( Melgaard et al. 2007 ). Due to the small area of coverage of the 30-minute travel time layer, the public transport system can be described as insufficient. Although the public transport modal share is relatively high in Warsaw, the constant occurrence of
. The results are, of course, not certain and obvious: the number of cars should decrease significantly: it could be as many as 9 out of each 10 cars could be removed. Under the same conditions the volume of car travel should increase between 6 and 89% depending on whether the system is configured with or without high capacity public transport. The new model of the transportation system will (according to the report) completely remove on-street parking and up to 80% of off street parking ( CPB Report 2015 : 5).
These results are reached on the basis of certain
by overambitious intentions on the part of project initiators or developers, and by high financial risk
Facilitate the physical restructuring of urban areas (introducing and promoting new land uses and infrastructure)
Planning of individual elements rather than integrated urban systems
Assist older cities previously dependent on declining industries to diversify their economic base
Prestige projects often entail the diversion of scarce public sector resources away from welfare-related needs (such as social housing, education and social
( Dalla Mora et al. 2015 ). Currently, when civilisation is confronted with a barrier of resource scarcity, a shrinking level of not just fossil energy sources but of other resources as well, there is a need to remodel the curricula of design education and move first from linear autonomous solutions to interdisciplinary and then circular ones ( Ryńska 2016 ). This different approach to the design process should include the use of external environmental parameters specific to each given location. It is also strongly connected with the emerging theme of the circular