social qualities. While buzz is associated with informality, serendipity and high degrees of mutual trust, global pipelines have been found to be more formalized, more effortful and dependent on (digital) media technologies ( Bathelt/Malmberg/Maskell 2004 ). Yet, even the establishment of global pipelines relies on physical co-presence. For instance, such pipelines are formed in personal meetings at “temporary clusters” ( Maskell/Bathelt/Malmberg 2006 ) such as trade fairs or conventions and on more mundane occasions of organized proximity, like intra-or inter
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2. Road Service and Translink. Bus Stop Design Guide, Investor in People, 2005 [online, cited 22.05.2018]. http://www.planningni.gov.uk/downloads/busstop-designguide.pdf
3. Johnson, V.D., Ponnuswamy, S. Urban transportation: planning, operation and management . Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2012. 272 p.
4. Zeeger, Ch.V. Pedestrian facilities users guide: Providing safety and mobility. diane publishing, 2002. 162 p.
5. Imperial County
with high technology. The 2.4% of Medellín residents who can’t read or write are naturally excluded from the full benefits of the Smart City. What’s more, the overall level of education is still on the way to improvement, with an average of 10 years of education in Medellín and a great degree of polarisation of access to school. Thus, there is a large section of society with only basic education with the need to get additional training on information technologies ( Medellín Como Vamos 2017 ). Yet, Medellín offers such courses; until 2014 more than 93,000 people
; Theodore & Peck 2011 ), knowledge exchange is oftentimes framed within a web of learning that obscures the economy of policy translation and the nexus of global intermediaries.
Such limited reflection on learning has been detrimental to the evaluation of bus rapid transit [BRT], a bus-based urban transport system hyped around the world as the cheap and cheerful solution to cities with deteriorating air quality, long commute times, increased greenhouse gas emissions, high rates of traffic fatalities and inferior road conditions. The Institute for Transportation and
Zum Einfluss unterschiedlicher Verfahren der Hochschulfinanzierung auf die regionale Ressourcenverteilung — Die Beispiele Niederlande, Großbritannien und Texas
Technopoles of the World. The making of 21st Century Industrial Complexes. London
Clark, B.R. (1983): The Higher EducationSystem. Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective. Berkeley Clark, B.R. (1983): The Higher EducationSystem. Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective. Berkeley
ders. Clark, B.R. (1998): Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Pergamon ders. Clark, B.R. (1998): Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Pergamon
De Gaudemar, J.-P. (1997
interdependence and entanglement of links and relations is extremely high. Poland is a unitary state with a post-communist legacy of central management, which makes economic, social and political links between state and region even more interwoven. This renders clearly distinguishing between exo- and endogenous factors responsible for the development of the socio-economic regional system extremely difficult. Nonetheless, although the resilience of the region to the crisis results to a high degree from the external macroeconomic constraints, the analysis indicated some specific
Michael Bentlage, Anne Wiese, Arno Brandt, Alain Thierstein and Frank Witlox
processing of materials such as metal is strongly dependent on the research carried out by engineers. For example, the shape and consistency of ship hulls has developed significantly due to new production processes in metal works and new materials. The results are plans or templates for wider series of production.
As a functional group high-tech actors are concerned with the production of material goods. The value added to the system rests firmly thereon. In contrast to the former two groups, the material input is valued at cost rather than in conjunction with non
.g. the 'power' of participating parties: whether the aim is co-decision (with the consequence that there might be no decision as long as consensus cannot be reached) or that all parties should be heard and then the decision makers decide (corresponding to the idea of representative democracy).
4.4 Legal compliance
In any law-driven planning system, legal compliance is a must. Jurisdiction and high court rulings show that legal compliance is based on several principles. First, a sound baseline survey and spatial analysis has to be carried out. Second, the
particular, the older residential neighbourhoods surrounding the city centres. The large-scale renewal of the housing stock since the late 1970’s has been tailored primarily to the needs of the low-income groups, thus again reinforcing the imbalance in the largest cities. Dutch major cities appear to be magnets for the underprivileged, immigrants included. Especially the share of middle-income groups is low compared to the national average, while the share of low incomes and people with little or no education is high.
Since the 1980’s, a change in national spatial policy
unternehmerischen High-Tech-Innovationen konzentriert. Die vier Beiträge im Sammelband, die diesem Teil zugeordnet sind, erweitern diese Perspektive sowohl thematisch wie geographisch. Im ersten Beitrag ( Johannes Glückler, Robert Panitz und Christian Wuttke ) werden Universitäten in kurzfristiger zeitlicher Perspektive insofern als Teil des ökonomischen Systems auf regionaler und nationaler Ebene betrachtet, dass sie kontinuierlich Ausgaben tätigen, Studenten und Beschäftigte rekrutieren wie auch Drittmittel aus anderen Regionen einwerben. Analysiert werden für das Bundesland