References Beauchamp C, Fridovich I ( 1971 ) Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 44: 276-287. Bojakowska K ( 2006 ) Evaluation of cytotoxicity of cadmium compounds: in vitro studies on rat and equine isolated hepatocytes. Doctoral thesis, Warsaw, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland. Borzęcka K, Bąkała A, Grono D, Głowala A, Wiechetek M ( 2004 ) Evaluation of cadmium cytotoxicity in isolated hepatocytes: effect of
M. Skrzycki, H. Czeczot, M. Majewska, M. Podsiad, W. Karlik, D. Grono and M. Wiechetek
M. Wójcik, J. Wessely-Szponder and U. Kosior-Korzecka
(2011) Mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 25: 195-206. Masood A, Stark KD, Salem N (2005) A simplified and efficient method for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters suitable for large clinical studies. J Lipid Res 46: 2299-2305. Ricchi M, Odoardi MR, Carulli L, Anzivino C, Ballestri S, Pinetti A, Fantoni LI, Marra F, Bertolotti M, Banni S, Lonardo A, Carulli N, Loria P (2008) Differential effect of oleic and palmitic acid on lipid accumulation and apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes. J Gastroenterol
Lidia Radko, Maria Minta, Piotr Jedziniak and Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas
References 1. Baillie T.A.: Metabolism and toxicity of drugs. Two decades of progress in industrial drug metabolism. Chem Res Toxicol 2008, 21, 129-137. 2. Baliharová V., Skálová L., Maas R.F.M., De Vrieze G., Bull S., Fink-Gremmels J.: The effects of benzimidazole anthelmintics on P4501A in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Res Vet Sci 2003, 75, 61-69. 3. Capece B.P.S., Navarro M., Arcalis T., Castells G., Toribio L., Perez F., Carretero A., Ruberte J., Arboix M., Cristòfol C.: Albendazole sulphoxide enantiomers
J. Pivko, P. Makovický, A. Makarevich, A. Sirotkin, P. Makovický and E. Kubovičová
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Ge Bai, Hui Li, Yansong Ge, Qianzhen Zhang, Jiantao Zhang, Mingzi Chen, Tao Liu and Hongbin Wang
neutrophils, which further contribute to cellular injury and cell death (necrosis or apoptosis). Following hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion, large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by the xanthine oxidase system, macrophage system, and mitochondrial respiratory chain ( 11 ). Moreover, the release of ROS can damage proteins, nucleic acids, cell membranes, and lipids ( 30 ), which can directly damage the hepatocytes. Autophagy has also been reported to be related to hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatocytes in thus injured liver degrade damaged and
Lidia Radko, Maria Minta and Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas
References 1. Baliharová V., Skálova L., Maas R.F.M., De Vrieze G., Bull S., Fink-Gremmels J.: The effects of benzimidazole anthelmintics on P4501A in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Res Vet Sci 2003, 75, 61-69. 2. Blaauboer B.J., Boobis A.R., Castell J.V., Coecke S., Groothuis G.M.M., Guillouzo A., Hall T.J., Hawksworth G.M. Lorenzon G., Miltenburger H.G., Rogiers V., Skett P., Viia P., Wiebel F.J.: The practical applicability of hepatocyte cultures in routine testing. ECVAM Workshop Report 1. ATLA 1994, 22, 231
Agnieszka Pedrycz, Zbigniew Boratyński, Marcin Orłowski and Piotr Siermontowski
. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999, 118, 655-664. 12. Mukhopadhyay I., Nazir A., Saxena D.K., Chowdhuri D.K.: Toxicity of cypermethrin: HSp70 as a biomarker of response in transgenic Drosophila . Biomarkers 2002, 7, 501-510. 13. Pedrycz A., Kot K., Olesiński I.: Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase 3 expression in rats' hepatocytes after L-arginine therapy. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2010, 54 , 101-103. 14. Rolye J.S., Ross J.A., Ansell I., Bollina P., Tulloch D.N., Habib F.K.: Nitric oxide donating nonsteroidal anti
Yesilmen Simten, Yaman Turan, Sağsöz Hakan and Bademkiran Servet
Brucellosis and Q fever, two zoonoses, are important causes of abortion in ruminants, as well as economically significant diseases caused by a gram-negative bacterium. Determination of these diseases is therefore of great importance. In this study, the organs of 35 naturally infected and aborted ovine fetuses were examined for the presence of changes resulting from infections by Brucella melitensis and Coxiella burnetii, according to macroscopic, bacteriological, histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. B. melitensis was observed in 21 cases, and C. burnetii was observed in 8 cases of the aborted ovine fetuses, and these were determined with immunohistochemical methods. Brucellosis was observed in 18 of the aborted ovine fetuses, and this was determined by microbiological methods. Negative (-) results were found for all of the other fetuses. The Brucella antigen was determined to be localized as intracytoplasmic in mainly alveolar macrophages, bronchi, bronchioles, glandular epithelial cells around bronchial glands, neutrophils, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. The Coxiella antigen was found to be localized in the alveolar macrophages in the lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveolus, and in the cytoplasms of bronchial gland epithelial cells, and in the cytoplasms of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells in the liver. Immunohistochemical and microbiological diagnoses of brucellosis and coxiellosis were compared; it was concluded that immunohistochemical methods were more safely applied than microbiological methods.
Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos Schmidt and Peter David Eckersall
During the acute phase response, there is an increased production and release of certain proteins known as acute phase proteins (APPs) which can be produced by hepatocytes and peripheral tissues such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). These proteins have been investigated as markers of various infectious diseases in small animals and the purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge about APPs in infectious diseases in dogs and cats.
Edhem Hasković, Melina Pekić, Muhamed Fočak, Damir Suljević and Lejla Mešalić
Glyphosate is a pesticide that influences many blood parameters if taken orally or subcutaneously. This pesticide causes important changes in the metabolic activity which can be measured by organospecific enzyme activity such as liver aminotransferases (AST and ALT), while glucose acts as a stress, energy and metabolism indicator after acute glyphosate exposure. In this research, glyphosate was applied subcutaneously to rats, administrated each 24 hours for a 15 days period. The concentration of the applied glyphosate was 2.8 g/kg. The experimental rats were 13 weeks old. The concentration of serum glucose, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and liver transaminases (AST and ALT) were observed as indicators of metabolic changes after treatment. It was observed that glyphosate led to a statistically significant decrease of serum glucose level. Statistically significantly increased (p<0.05) AST, ALT and LDH activities are indicators of hepatocyte damage while LDH activity demonstrates damage of other tissues.