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From sewage sludge ash to calcium phosphate fertilizers

References 1. Morse, G.K., Lester, J.N. & Perry, R. (1993). The economic and environmental impact of phosphorus removal from wastewater in the European Community . Selpher Publications, London. 2. Jasinski, S.M. (2010). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, chapter Phosphate Rock . United States Government Printing Offi ce, Washington. 3. Schröder, J.J., Cordell, D., Smit, A.L. & Rosemarin, A. (2009). Sustainable use of phosphorus, European Union tender project ENV.B.1/ETU/2009

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Effect of granular fertilisers produced from industrial and municipal wastes on the crop yield and their content of macroelements

sewage sludge composts and potato pulp on uptaking of macroelements by the grain and straw of the spring triticale. Pol. J. Chem. Tech., 9(4), 14-17. DOI: 10.2478/v/10026-007-0081-0. 5. Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 2008. Offi cial Journal of Laws No. 119, item 765 of 2008 [in Polish]. 6. Krzywy, E., Możdżer, E. & Iżewska, A. (2012). Research on the use of industrial wastes for the production of organic and mineral fertilizers and their impact on soil fertility. Sprawozdanie końcowe z badań

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The effect of sewage sludge composts and potato pulp on uptaking of macroelements by the grain and straw of the spring triticale

The effect of sewage sludge composts and potato pulp on uptaking of macroelements by the grain and straw of the spring triticale

Taking into consideration the acid pH soil, high content of potassium in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus and the insignificant quantity of heavy metals in the potato pulp and the slight alkaline pH soil as well, high amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in relation to potassium in the municipal sewage sludge, the experiment was carried out in order to define the effect of composts from these waste on uptaking macroelements by the grain and the straw of the Wanad variety spring triticale.

The vegetative - pot experiment was carried out on the brown incomplete soil of the slight acid pH (pHKCl 6,1), of the granulometric composition of slight loam (V complex), an average content of available forms of phosphorus and potassium and a high content of magnesium.

The obtained results show that the grain and the straw of spring trticale took distinctly more macroelements under the influence the fertilization of the composts with the municipal sewage sludge (30%) and the potato pulp (30%) in comparison with the composts with the 60% participation of the potato pulp. The supplementary mineral fertilization which was used against in comparison to composts, increased uptaking the macroelements by the tested plant. The double dose of composts and mineral fertilizers visibly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cooper, magnesium and sulphur absorbance by the grain and the straw of spring trticale in comparison with the series with a single dose of composts and a supplementary mineral fertilization.

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Assessment of the use of municipal and industrial wastes in agriculture

. Zesz. Probl. PNR , 1999 , 467, 299 - 306. Jasiewicz Cz., Antonkiewicz J., Baran A.: Influence of organic fertilization on content of heavy metals in tall oat grass. Ecol. Chem. and Eng. , 2006 , 13, 915 - 924. Jasiewicz Cz., Antonkiewicz J.: Wpływ dawki i rodzaju nawozu na zawartość azotu w kukurydzy. Monografie Wszechnicy Mazurskiej w Olecku , 2005 , 143 - 152. Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H.: Biogeochemia pierwiastków śladowych. Wyd. Nauk. PWN, Warszawa 1999 , 397

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Bio-chemical methods in wasteprocessing

References Varheghyi, Gy. et al. "Removving of the heavy metals by bacteria" Bányaszati és koházatin lapok/Mining and Metallurgical letters 1973, pp. 9, 415 - 419. Kuhnhalmi, G. "Red sludge from production of the Al 2 O 3 - Ecological problem", Acta Metallurgica , 4, special Issue, 1/1998, pp. 145 - 149. Kafka, R. "Environmental strategy of ZSNP group". In: Proceeding VIII. Al symposium, Donovaly 1997. Kušnierová, M. & Štyriaková, I. "Influence of the

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Effect of combustion wastes and sewage sludge compost on the chemical properties of soil

of various forms of heavy metals in sewage sludge and composts. Acta Agrophys. 8 (4): 825-838 [in Polish]. 30. Czekała, J. (2004). Influence of sewage sludge on selected soil chemical properties. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 499: 39-46 [in Polish]. 31. Czekała, J. (2006). Copper and manganese chemical bonds in a sewage sludge composted with straw in a bioreactor under conditions of differentiated air supply. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 15, 2a: 30-35. 32. Grzywnowicz, I. (2007). Dynamic of mineral nitrogen form content In

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A modified nanoporous stir bar for simultaneous determination of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions in natural samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy

.1080/0265203021000031573. 3. Satarug, S. & Moore, M.R. (2004). Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium in foodstuffs and cigarette smoke. Environ. Health Perspect. , 112, 1099-1103. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6751. 4. Díaz, S., Martín-González, A. & Carlos Gutiérrez, J. (2006). Evaluation of heavy metal acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in soil ciliated protozoa. Environ. Int. , 32, 711-717. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.03.004. 5. Vesterberg, O. & Wrangskogh, K. (1978). Determination of cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption

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Conditions of synthesis and structure of metakaolin-based geopolymers: application as heavy metal cation sorbent

). Geopolymerization of multiple minerals. Miner. Eng. 15(12), 1131–1139. DOI: 10.1016/S0892-6875(02)00255-8. 7. Xu, H. & van Deventer, J.S.J. (2000). The geopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals. Int. J. Miner. Process. 59(3), 247–266. DOI: 10.1016/S0301-7516(99)00074-5. 8. Pacheco-Torgal, F., Castro-Gomes, J.P. & Jalali, S. (2008). Alkali-activated binders: a review. Part 2. About materials and binders manufacture. J. Constr. Build. Mater. 22(7), 1315–1322. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.03.019. 9. Palomo, A., Grutzek, M.W. & Blanco-Varela, M.T. (1999

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Simulation of circulating fluidized bed gasification for characteristic study of pakistani coal

Bioenerg. 32(12), 1245-1254. DOI: 10.1016/j. biombioe.2008.02.020. 10. Yan, H. & Zhang, D. (1999). Modeling of a low temperature pyrolysis process using ASPEN PLUS. Dev. Chem. Eng. Mineral Process. 7(5-6), 577-591. DOI: 10.1002/apj.5500070511. 11. Lee, J.M., Kim, Y.J., Lee, W.J. & Kim, S.D. (1998). Coal-gasification kinetics derived from pyrolysis in a fluidized- bed reactor. Energy 23(6), 475-488. DOI: 10.1016/S0360-5442(98)00011-5. 12. Duan, F., Jin, B., Huang, Y., Li, B., Wu, Y. & Zhang, M. (2010). Results of bituminous

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An appraisal of the properties of bottom waste obtained from bio-mass congestion to estimate the ways of its environmental use

LITERATURE CITED 1. Energy Market Agency. (2013). Emitor. Emission of envirmnental pollution from heating plants and power plants. Warsaw (in Polish). 2. Galos, K., Gawlicki, M., Hycnar, E., Lewicka, E., Nieć, M., Ratajczak, T. & Szlugaj, J., Wyszomirski P. (2009). Raw materials from mineral waste. Ed. IGSMIE PAN, Krakow (in Polish). 3. Regulation of the Minister of Environmental of 9 December 2014 on Catalog of Wastes (2014). (Journal of Laws 2014, pos. 1923 (in Polish). 4. Energy Market Agency. (2014). Emitor. Emission of envirmnental

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