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Katarzyna Słomska

cartographers. The development of this research field has been described by e.g. Montello (2002 ; 2009 ) and Żyszkowska (2015) . There have been two important shifts in researchers’ approaches. In the very beginning, cartographers focused on particular elements of a map and tested them in isolation. For instance, Flannery (1956) , who studied the use of circles in proportional symbols maps. The first revision was influenced by, among others, the work of Petchenik (1977) , who highlighted that a map constitutes a unity in itself and suggested that a holistic approach

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Cosmin-Liviu Şchiopu and Nicoleta Ionac


Icing - a risk factor in aviation. Case study: The plane crash in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) on 20.01.2014. Icing is a potentially harmful weather phenomenon for flight safety. Icing, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities since it severely impedes the aerodynamic properties of an aircraft, sometimes to such an extent that flying and landing may become impossible. Icing is a serious weather threat to aviation and may ultimately lead to deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place in the Western (Apuseni) Mountains on the 20.01.2014, when an aircraft which was transporting a medical team on a humanitarian mission, simply crashed down in the area of the Western (Apuseni) Mountains, at around 4:00 pm local time. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages or official elements and information from that very day. All these materials show that the flight route and the airdrome of destination were under the influence of a front which accounted for very poor meteorological conditions. On such bad weather, the flight was practically doomed to failure since low snow and sleet-bearing clouds were hanging down over the mountaintops. Flying straight through these clouds made any landmarks impossible to be seen and, furthermore, lack of orientation created false perceptions which led to fatal misjudgements and errors.

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David Řehák, Kateřina SikorovÁ and Pavel Senovský

technologie, systémy a management II (in Czech). Zlin: VeRBuM. Senovsky, M., Adamec, V., Krocova, S. & Senovsky P. (2009). Assessment of Risks of Critical Infrastructure Elements (in Czech). Spektrum, 9(1), 5−7. Sikorova, K. (2009). Environmental Impact Assessment in the context of management of major accident prevention (in Czech). Doctoral thesis, VSB-Technical University, Ostrava. SIPROCI (2007). Risk Mapping a Proposal for a Common European Methodology. Project coordinator EuroCentro. Vojkovska, K

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Małgorzata Gałczyńska, Natalia Mańkowska, Justyna Milke and Marta Buśko

. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. No. 23 (1) p. 50–60. B abić M., R adić S., C vjetko P., R oje V., P evalek -K ozlina B., P avlica M. 2009. Antioxidative response of Lemna minor plants exposed to thallium(I)-acetate. Aquatic Botany. No. 91 p. 166–172. B asile A., S orbo S., C onte B., C obianchi R., T rinchella F., C apasso C., C arginale V. 2012. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes. International Journal of Phytoremediation. No. 14(4) p. 374–387. B ello A.O., T awabini B

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Naouel Ouali, Bourhane E. Belabed, Fadila Zeghdoudi and Mounira Rachedi

Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 114. Iss. 2 p. 1164–1170. B elabed B.E., A ffray X., D hib A., F ertouna -B elakhal M., T urki S., A leya L. 2013. Factors contributing to heavy metal accumulation in sediments and in the intertidal mussel Perna perna in the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria). Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 74. Iss. 1 p. 477–489. B elabed B.E., M eddour A.N., S amraoui B. C henchouni H. 2017. Modeling seasonal and spatial contamination of surface waters and upper sediments with trace metal elements across industrialized urban areas of the Seybouse

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Vulnerability Through Resilience?

An Example of the Counterproductive Effects of Spatially Related Governance in Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg

Tobias Schmidt

issue). For example, the perception of the danger of nuclear power can change abruptly after a disaster like Chernobyl or Fukushima. Different perceptions of hazardous situations and appropriate ways of dealing with them can lead to counterproductive effects when joint action approaches are to be developed (see Christmann/Ibert/Kilper et al. 2011 ). This can be empirically demonstrated using the example of the "International Building Exhibition Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg" (" Internationale Bauausstellung Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg" : IBA). In a cooperative collaboration

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Georg Schiller, Andreas Blum and Martin Behnisch

ecologic system of the Earth as well as of our solar system which are directly or indirectly used by man or may be used or which provide the basis of man's life and survival as well as man's economic management and man's co-existence with nature. Among this there count e. g. functions such as climate stability, protection from hazardous radiation by the ozone layer, the capacity of absorbing harmful substances, the stability and regeneration capacity of natural, species-rich habitats and solar radiation. In the stricter sense, by natural resources we mean on the one hand

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Aleksandra Lewandowska and Daniela Szymańska

Jan. 2013 concerning changes in the regulation for keeping communes clean and orderly. Communes have the obligation to work out proper systems of waste collection, including of fractions (kinds) such as paper, metal, plastics, glass, composite packaging and biodegradable municipal waste. They are obliged to determine segregation locations accessible to all commune inhabitants that are also suitable for collecting hazardous waste, used electric and electronic devices, bulky waste, used tyres, and construction and green waste ( Zębek, Raczkowski, 2014 ). In response