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Katarzyna Nikorowicz-Zatorska

particularly hazardous to aircraft departing or arriving at an airport. The largest number of airplane accidents happen during the take-off and landing stages. Aircraft are vulnerable during the landing procedure; they are operating at low altitude, with reduced speed and flaps down. The presence of trees, shrubs or even compact urban developments can produce low-level turbulence or wind shear (vertical or horizontal). Wind shear is particularly dangerous for aircraft due to the occurrence of violent air movements (up – or down-draughts, swirling or rotating air patterns