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Open access

W. Krason and J. Malachowski

Abstract

Dynamic analyses of a transport aircraft landing gear are conducted to determine the effort of such a complex system and provide capabilities to predict their behaviour under hazardous conditions. This kind of investigation with the use of numerical methods implementation is much easier and less expensive than stand tests. Various 3D models of the landing gear part are defined for the multistage static FE analysis. A complete system of the main landing gear was mapped as a deformable 3D numerical model for dynamic analysis with the use of LS-Dyna code. In this 3D deformable FE model, developed in a drop test simulation, the following matters were taken into consideration: contact problems between collaborating elements, the phenomena of energy absorption by a gas-liquid damper placed in the landing gear and the response of the landing gear during the touchdown of a flexible wheel with the ground. The results of numerical analyses for the selected drop tests and the results from the experiments carried out on a real landing gear were used for verification of FE models and a methodology of the landing gear dynamics analysis. The results obtained from the various simulations of the touchdown have proved the effectiveness of the 3D numerical model and how many problems can be solved in the course of only one numerical run, e.g. geometric and material nonlinearities, a question of contact between the mating components, investigation of the landing gear kinematics, investigation of the energy dissipation problem in the whole system and the stresses influence on the structure behaviour, which can appear in some elements due to overload.

Open access

Maroš Sirotiak, Marek Lipovský and Alica Bartošová

References: 1. WANG, L. K. HUNG, Y. T, LO, H. H and YAPIJAKIS, C. 2004. Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment . Vol. 1 Marcel Dekker Inc. 1329 p. ISBN: 0-8247-4114-5 2. AHMARUZZAMAN, M. 2011. Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals. In: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 166 (1–2), pp. 36 – 59. 3. KURNIAWAN, T. A., CHAN, G. Z. S., LO, W and BABEL, S. 2006 Comparisons of low-cost adsorbents for treating wastewaters laden with heavy metals. Science of

Open access

Artūras Petraška, Kristina Čižiūnienė, Olegas Prentkovskis and Aldona Jarašūnienė

. (2017) Variable neighborhood search to solve the vehicle routing problem for hazardous materials transportation. Journal of Hazardous Materials , 324(Part B), 472–480. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.015 9. Carrara, S., Longden, T. (2017) Freight futures: The potential impact of road freight on climate policy. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment , 55, 359–372. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2016.10.007 10. Conca, A., Ridella, C., Sapori, E. (2016) A risk assessment for road transportation of dangerous goods: A routing solution. Transportation

Open access

Beata Grynkiewicz-Bylina

Chemicals (REACH), of 18 December 2006 (Official Journal of the European Union No. L 136/3). [9] Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 August 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (Official Journal of the European Union No L 37/19). [10] Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) (Official Journal of the European Union No L 37

Open access

Bahman Amiri, K. Sudheer and Nicola Fohrer

in the Upper Han River Basin, China. J. of Hazardous Mater., 162 , 2-3, 1340-1346, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.059. LI S., XU Z., CHENG X., ZHANG Q., 2008: Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. Environ. Geol. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-1047-5. LIU S. M., BRAZIER R., HEATHWAITE L., 2005: An investigation into the inputs controlling predictions froth a diffuse phosphorus loss model for the UK; the Phosphorus Indicators Tool (PIT). Sci. Total Environ, 344 , 1-3, 211

Open access

Marton Czikkely and Csaba Fogarassy

of heavy metals in six different sewage sludge-composts. Journal of Hazardous Materials 147: 1063-1072 p. [19] Roodbergen M., Klok C., van der Hout A. (2008): Transfer of heavy metals in the foodchain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in the Netherlands. Science of Total Environment 406: 407-12. p. [20] Rotmisztrov M.N. et al. (1982): A szennyvíztisztítás mikrobiológiája (Microbiology of Wastewater Treatment). Mezőgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest, p. 27-34. [21

Open access

Jarosław Kaszubkiewicz, Ewa Pora, Dorota Kawałko and Paweł Jezierski

Arsenic compounds from industrial wastewater , Ochrona Środowiska, 28,4 (2006) 41-44. 5. Gumiński: Próba wydzielenia dzielnic rolniczo-klimatycznych w Polsce ., Przegl. Meteo. i Hydrol., 1948. 6. Kabata-Pendias A.: Biogeochemia pierwiastków śladowych, Wyd. Nauk. PWN, 1999. 7. Kabata-Pendias A.: Trace elements from soil to human , Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9 (2007) 11054. 8. Karczewska A., Kabała C.: The soils polluted with heavy metals and arsenic in Lover Silesia – the need and methods of reclamation , Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we

Open access

Lidia Dąbrowska

References 1. Bojakowska I.: Kryteria oceny zanieczyszczenia osadów wodnych, Przegląd Geologiczny, 49, 3 (2001) 213-218. 2. Bojakowska I., Gliwicz T., Małecka K.: Wyniki geochemicznych badań osadów wodnych Polski w latach 2003-2005, Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Warszawa 2006. 3. European Committee for Standardization, Characterization of sludges - Determination of trace elements and phosphorus - Aqua regia exctracion methods, EN 13346:2000. 4. Glyzes Ch

Open access

Maja Radziemska

.: The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide insmelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals andmetalloids, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286 (2015) 386-394. 9. El Hadri H., Chéry P., Jalabert S., Lee A., Potin-Gautier M., Lespes G.: Assessment of diffuse contamination of agricultural soil by copper in Aquitaine region by using French national databases, Science of The Total Environment, 441, 15 (2012) 239-247. 10. Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias A.: Trace elements in soil and plants. 3

Open access

Aleksandra Sieciechowicz

-723. 4. Gawlik T., Sumisławski K., Chrzanowski J.: Wpływ nawożenia osadem na jakość i plonowanie roślin uprawnych. Przegląd komunalny 1, (2000) 13-14. 5. Gębski M.: Czynniki glebowe oraz nawozowe wpływające na przyswajanie metali ciężkich przez rośliny. Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Roln. 5: (1998) 3-16. 6. Kabata-Pendias A.: Soil-plant transfer of trace elements-an environmental issue. Geoderma, 122, (2004)143-149. 7. Kabata - Pendias A., Pendias H.: Biogeochemia pierwiastków śladowych.Wyd. PWN, Warszawa 1999. 8