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Role of Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases

1 Introduction Human microbiota, a complex population of microorganisms, consists of both commensals and pathogenic microbial cells [ 1 ]. They reside in the body of every person and interact with us in many different ways [ 1 ]. Nowadays, millions of sequences can be generated from a single tissue sample by a sequencing technology, which allow us to understand more about the microorganisms’ world [ 1 ]. The microbiome can be defined as a collective genome of the microbes, which include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses [ 2 ]. Gut harbors approximately

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A case of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy complicated by Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoma

years, developed EBV-associated lymphoma. Despite the stepping down of the immunosuppressives and active lymphoma therapy, the patient died because of infective complications. EBV is an enveloped herpes virus with a 172-kb double-stranded DNA genome. More than 90% of the adults worldwide are EBV seropositive, primarily after developing the infection during childhood [ 2 ]. It is transmitted through saliva and targets oral epithelial cells as well as B-cells in the submucosal lymphoid layer. Its life cycle can be divided into the lytic phase, when it can infect other

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