Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent blood-borne pathogen infecting approximately 250 million people [ 1 ], and could potentially establish a chronic infection leading to life-threatening cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The virus belongs to a family Hepadnaviridae and its 3.2 kb partially double-stranded genome is packed into an enveloped, spherical virion. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a combination of HBV vaccine and immunoglobulin elicits 80%–95% protective effect to prevent mother to child transmissions when
metalloproteinases (TIMPs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), folic acid, streptozotocin, and cyclosporine A, were then entered into a Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals Network (STITCH 5.0; http://stitch.embl.de ) to elucidate their cellular functions [ 21 ]. Proteins shown to be involved in pathways relevant to the onset of fibrosis, whose information was provided by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis available as a part of STITCH 5.0, were reevaluated individually with STITCH 5.0 with a limit of 10 functional partners to elucidate their
Siwaporn Wongsen, Duangporn Werawatganon and Somying Tumwasorn
authors have each completed and submitted an International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest. None of the authors disclose any conflict of interest.
 McClelland M, Wilson RK. Comparison of sample sequences of the Salmonella typhi genome to the sequence of the complete Escherichia coli K-12 genome. Infect Immun. 1998; 66:4305–12. 9712782
McClelland M Wilson RK Comparison of sample sequences of the Salmonella typhi genome to the sequence of the complete Escherichia coli K
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play crucial roles in the architecture of the developing central nervous system (CNS) to modulate cellular interactions and stabilize neural circuitry [ 1 ]. Neural CAM (NCAM) is the most widely present CAM in the CNS [ 2 , 3 ] and comprises a family of cell surface glycoproteins that are closely related structurally and belong to the
immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules encoded by a 26-exon-containing gene found at single locus in the genome [ 4 ].
The alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications can
genomic extraction kit (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen). Construction of the library and sequencing were performed by the Biochemistry Department, Medicine Faculty, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. The library was prepared using a NEBNext Ultra DNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina. Whole genome sequencing and assembly were analyzed using a HiSeq 2000 Illumina system (New England Biolabs).
PCR and DNA sequencing of the RD16 region (Rv3405c)
Genomic DNA from the working seed BCG (lot No. FB03012) was extracted using a genomic extraction kit (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen
ranging from asymptomatic infection, dengue fever and, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) to dengue shock syndrome [ 2 ].
Previous studies by our group and by others have shown that, during acute infection, DENV genome is detectable in blood, saliva, and urine samples [ 3 - 6 ]. In addition, concurrent infections with multiple serotypes can occur in both infected mosquitoes and humans [ 7 - 10 ]. Here, we present a case of dual DENV infections with DENV2 and DENV4 serotypes in the urine at a single time point. The ‘minor’ serotype disappeared in subsequent specimens
, including Student t , Pearson χ 2 , and Benjamini false discovery rate (FDR) tests, to identify the genes and the molecular pathways associated with the aging process and various types of exercise. The official names of significant genes and their molecular functions, and their molecular and cellular phenotypes, were evaluated by GeneCards, a human gene database maintained by the Crown Human Genome Center at the Weizmann Institute of Science ( http://www.genecards.org/ ).
Overall methodical framework is shown in Figure 1 .
Mohammad A. Farraj, Gabi M. Abusada, Abed Alraoof M. Saleem, Ayyub Y. Joaidi, Raba M. Radad, Hiba N. Atrash, Israr N. Sabri and Tamer A. Essawi
Background: Neisseria gonorrohoeae is an exclusive human pathogen that primarily infects the urogenital epithelia. Infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae are considered the second major cause of sexually transmitted disease after Chlamydiae worldwide. Although the urethra and the uterine cervix serve as the initial sites for gonococcal infections in men and women, infection of the conjunctiva, pharynx, tendons, joints, as well as rectal mucosa are also reported. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to introduce molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect N. gonorrhoeae directly from endocervical swabs. In addition, it provides a picture of Neisseria gonorrohea infection among a sample of Palestinian women in West Bank. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen endocervical swabs were collected from sexually active married women with endocervical abnormalities attending healthcare clinics. DNA was extracted directly from the swabs and PCR was performed using specific primers targeting the orf1 region of the genome. Results: The results obtained indicated that the percentage of positive cases of N. gonorrhoeae among the women tested was 1.40%. Conclusion: Implementing guidelines for comprehensive screening of men and women with more sensitive tests may improve detection and management of sexually transmitted infections.
Haifeng Wang, Delin Yang, Jiansong Wang and Hongyi Xu
Background: Metastasis of tumor implantation includes a series of processes from detachment from the primary tumor to formation of the implanted metastase. Tumor cells survival in urine is a necessary condition for metastasis. Adaptation to urine is essential for this.
Objective: Establish a urine-resistant cell sub-strain of human bladder cancer cell line (ET cell lines), and study different characteristics compared to parent cells.
Methods: EJ cell lines were cultured in nutrient medium. Urine-resistance cell sub-strain (EJ-U) was harvested after prolonged culture by gradually increasing the concentration of urine. Gen chip was used to detect the genome series of EJ and EJ-U and to analyze the difference of gene expression.
Results: EJ-U in urine had a higher survival rate after 24 hours in urine compared with EJ. The EJ-U had almost the same growth velocity with EJ, and they had the analogous growth curves. The time-duration for EJ-U to survive was longer than EJ in urine. In gene ontology analysis, 272 significant different genes were found.
Conclusion: EJ-U cell sub-strain was more adaptable than its parent cell lines EJ. The different genes may explain the reason why bladder cancer cells could survive for a long time in urine.
Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Surasak Akesowan and Thaweesak Tirawatnapong
Background: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution, infecting equids. It causes a persistent infection that is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Most of the horses may control EIAV replication within a year, remaining persistently infected without clinical signs of disease. Objective: Detect EIA nucleic acid from peripheral blood of asymptomatic horses using nested PCR. Materials and method: We used nested PCR, amplifying P26 gag gene of EIAV, for direct detection of viral RNA in plasma and proviral DNA from PBMC in asymptomatic carrier horses in comparison with the Coggins test. EIA nucleic acid was prepared from 20 seropositive and five EIAV seronegative horses. Amplification of 246 bp expected size fragments was obtained using two different sets of primers targeting the P26 gag gene. Results: Among 20 seropositive horses, nine samples were positive for RNA and DNA. The five samples were positive for DNA but not for RNA, which indicates that the virus integrated into the host cell genome with a low level of viral replication. However, six samples were negative for both DNA and RNA. False negative could result due to primer failure caused by gag sequences variation among strains circulating in Thailand when compared with various strains from other parts of the world. EIAV antigens may also be prepared from cell cultures contaminated with other retroviruses thus causing false positives with the Coggins test. Conclusion: Nested PCR can be a useful tool for detecting the presence of EIAV in asymptomatic carrier horses. This may be especially true during the acute stage of the disease where the viremia levels are usually at the highest levels before detectable antibodies appear.