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Gabriella Schiera, Valentina Contrò, Alessia Sacco, Alessandra Macchiarella, Pawel Cieszczyk and Patrizia Proia

, Deng H, Liu X, Liu L, Ji A. Roles of long noncoding RNAs in brain development, functional diversification and neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Bull. 2013;97:69-80; doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2013.06.001. 11. Amaral PP, Mattick JS. Noncoding RNA in development. Mamm Genome. 2008;19(7-8):454-492; doi: 10.1007/ s00335-008-9136-7. 12. Qureshi IA, Mehler MF. Emerging roles of non-coding RNAs in brain evolution, development, plasticity and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13(8):528-541; doi: 10.1038/ nrn3234. 13

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Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Zarębska, Wojciech Smółka and Paweł Cięszczyk

related to human obesity ( Loos et al., 2008 ). Genetic variants within the MC4R coding region have been found to be associated with severe and common forms of obesity in humans ( Hebebrand et al., 2010 ). Additionally, polymorphisms outside of the coding region have been associated with a predisposition to polygenic obesity. The non-coding variants of the MC4R probably influence MC4R expression, however, a molecular mechanism for the SNPs associations remains unclear ( Evans et al., 2014 ). Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in

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Michael R. Esco, Ronald L. Snarr, Andrew Flatt, Matthew Leatherwood and Adam Whittaker

References An P, Rice T, Rankinen T, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC. Genome-wide scan to identify quantitative trait loci for baseline resting heart rate and its response to endurance exercise training: the heritage family study. Int J Sports Med, 2006; 27(01): 31-36 Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med, 2008; 38(1): 37-51 Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P. Physical and metabolic demands

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Paweł Cięszczyk, Aleksandra Zarębska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Michał Sawczyn, Izabela Kozakiewicz-Drobnik, Agata Leońska-Duniec, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Piotr Żmijewski, Grzegorz Trybek, Wojciech Smółka, Jan Pilch, Katarzyna Leźnicka, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk and Myosotis Massidda

., 2003 ; Missitzi et al., 2004 ; Stanula et al., 2014 ; Stunkard et al., 1990 ). Rapid development of molecular methods enabling the research of the structure and sequence of the human genome, and the usage of the model based on association analysis of candidate genes in sports has become feasible. To date, nearly 80 molecular markers have been reported to be correlated with physical performance, exercise and fitness as well as trainability ( Ahmetov and Fedotovskaya, 2012 ; Ahemtov et al., 2015 ). One of the candidate genes that have been recently studied in

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Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Thomas Hilberg, Jürgen Freiwald and Udo Frank Wehmeier

Sports Med , 2014; 48: 22-31 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093152 Fernandez-Fernandez J Ulbricht A Ferrauti A. Fitness testing of tennis players: how valuable is it? Br J Sports Med 2014 48 22 31 Friedman RC, Farh KK, Burge CB, Bartel DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res , 2009; 19: 92-105 Friedman RC Farh KK Burge CB Bartel DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs Genome Res 2009 19 92 105 Gallo A, Tandon M, Alevizos I, Illei GG. The majority of microRNAs detectable in serum and saliva is concentrated in exosomes

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Mateusz Radojewski, Tomasz Podgórski, Barbara Pospieszna, Jakub Kryściak, Ewa Śliwicka and Joanna Karolkiewicz

periods on genome stability indicate that adaptations of endogenous protective antioxidant and/or repair mechanisms prevent severe and persistent DNA damage in well-trained athletes ( Miyata et al., 2008 ; Radák et al., 2000 ; Reichhold et al., 2008 ; Vezzoli et al., 2014 ). Wittwer et al. (2004) also confirmed that the activities of DNA damage-repairing enzymes were upregulated by training. There is a wide debate in literature concerning the reliability of the serum CK level as a marker of muscle damage. Myofibrillar CK (M-CK) is bound to the M-line of the