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Ivana Vrhovac and Goran Nikšić

-27. Vergnaud G, Denoeud F. Minisatellites, mutability and genome architecture. Genome Res 2000; 10: 899-907. Little JB. Radiation carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 397-404. Dubrova YE, Plumb M, Brown J, Fennely J, Bois P, Goodhead D, et al. Stage specificity, dose response and doubling dose for mouse minisatellite germline mutation induced by acute radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95: 6251-5. Bois PR. Hypermutable minisatellites, a human affair. Genomics 2003; 81: 349

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Petra Hudler, Nina Kocevar Britovsek, Snjezana Frkovic Grazio and Radovan Komel

their effect in the context of polymorphic biological sequences on protein binding motifs. We used web-based software PROMO, which is part of the ALGGENE web-server. 32 , 33 The search for putative binding sites was performed using the following parameters: human species, all motifs, and all factors. The data for comparisons of genotype frequencies in European populations of examined SNPs in this study was extracted from the 1000 Genomes Project data platform using a specific version of the Ensembl browser ( ). 34 Results

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Matej Horvat and Borut Stabuc

Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer

Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. In 75% CRC develops sporadically, in 25% hereditary or as a consequence of inflammatory bowel disease. CRC carcinogenesis develops over many years. The cause of CRC in 85% is chromosomal instability (CIN) and in 15% microsatellite instability (MSI-H), where hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) represents 10-20%. Microsatellite sequences (MS) are repeated sequences of short stretches of DNA all over the genome. Microsatellite stability (MSS) means MS are the same in each cell of an individual, whereas microsatellite instability (MSI-H) means MS differ in normal and cancer cells of an individual. The cause of MSI-H is a damaged mismatch repair mechanism (MMR), with the most important MMR proteins being MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6.

Conclusions. MSI-H seems to be an important prognostic factor in CRC and an important predictive factor of CRC chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy. Clinical trials conducted until now have shown contradictory findings in different chemotherapeutic settings, adjuvant and palliative; therefore MSI-H is going to be the object of the future research. The future of cancer treatment is in the individualized therapy based on molecular characteristics of the tumour, such as MSI-H in CRC.

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Nina Hauptman and Damjan Glavac

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Morana Mikloš, Goran Gajski and Vera Garaj-Vrhovac

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Judith Auer, Ulrike Keller, Manfred Schmidt, Oliver Ott, Rainer Fietkau and Luitpold V. Distel

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Tomislav Vladusic, Reno Hrascan, Nives Pecina-Slaus, Ivana Vrhovac, Marija Gamulin, Jasna Franekic and Bozo Kruslin

testis and paratesticular tissue. In: Kleihues P, Sobin LH, editors. World Health Organization Classification of Tumour. Lyon: IARC Press; 2004. p. 217-78. Bergthorsson JT, Agnarsson BA, Gudbjartsson T, Magnusson K, Thoroddsen A, Palsson B, et al. A genome-wide study of allelic imbalance in human testicular germ cell tumors using microsatellite markers. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2006; 164 : 1-9. von Eyben FE. Chromosomes, genes, and development of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2004; 151 : 93

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Abdul Nordin, Simona Secondino, Noraini Rahim, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Salvatore Siena, Claudio Rossetti and Tahir Aris

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Nina Trost, Tina Stepisnik, Sabina Berne, Anja Pucer, Toni Petan, Radovan Komel and Natasa Debeljak

control genes. Genome Biol 2002; 3: RESEARCH0034. 19. Bustin SA, Benes V, Garson JA, Hellemans J, Huggett J, Kubista M, et al. The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative realtime PCR experiments. Clin Chem 2009; 55: 611-22. 20. Smyth GK. Limma: linear models for microarray data. In: Robert Gentleman VJC, Wolfgang Huber, Rafael A. Irizarry, Sandrine Dudoit editor. Bioinformatics and computational biology solutions using R and bioconductor . New York: Springer; 2005. p.397-420. 21

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Neza Podergajs, Narve Brekka, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Christel Herold-Mende, Krishna M. Talasila, Katja Tiemann, Uros Rajcevic, Tamara T. Lah, Rolf Bjerkvig and Hrvoje Miletic

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