. J., Blaxter, M., Bleve-Zacheo, T., Davis, E. L., Ewbank, J. J., Favery, B., Grenier, E., Henrissat, B., Jones, J. T., Laudet, V., Maule, A. G., Quesneville, H., Rosso, M. N., Schiex, T., Smant, G., Weissenbach, J. Wincker, P. (2008): Genome sequence of the metazoan plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Nat. Biotechnol., 26(8): 909–915. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1482 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1482  Aggarwal, R. K., Hendre, P. S., Varshney, R. K., Bhat, P. R., Krishnakumar, V. Singh, L. (2007): Identification, characterization and
Q. Huang, X. Cheng, B. Xie and R. Xu
Muyao Zhang, Xing Wei and Zhenfei Wang
every year [ 4 ]. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the mechanism of promotion of initiation and progression of hepatoma by HBV. HBx protein is one of the products of the HBV genome. Recent studies have found that HBx protein has great effects on the biological behaviors of hepatocytes and hepatoma cells, and that it plays important roles in promoting the initiation and progression of hepatoma, thus holding promise to becoming a new molecular target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. 2 HBx protein The X protein (HBx) encoded by the X region
M. Bombarová and M. Špakulová
References BAZSALOVICSOVÁ, E., KRÁLOVÁ-HROMADOVÁ, I., BRABEC, J., HANZELOVÁ, V., OROS, M., SCHOLZ, T. (2014): Confl ict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fi shes. Folia Parasitol., 61 (4): 347 - 54. DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.035 BOMBAROVÁ, M., VÍTKOVÁ, M., ŠPAKULOVÁ, M., KOUBKOVÁ, B. (2009): Telomere analysis of platyhelminths and acanthocephalans by FISH and Southern hybridization. Genome, 52: 897 - 903. DOI: 10.1139/G09
Xuemei Li and Xiaoxia Li
the main cause of chronic mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection in East Asia [ 23 ]. The HBV genome is unique and precise in structure but is susceptible to mutation, and mutation at certain specific sites may be associated with chronic HBV infection. The preS deletion mutation is the most frequently reported mutation. A large in-frame deletion mutation has been detected in the preS region of the gene encoding the HBV envelope protein, and the mutation sites are often clustered at the 3′ end of the preS1 region and the 5′ end of the preS2 region [ 24
Jun Cheng, Min Quan, Min Li, Shun-ai Liu and Qi Wang
;89:409-418. 20 Ngui SL, Hallet R, Teo CG. Natural and iatrogenic variation in hepatitis B virus. Rev Med Virol 1999;9:183-209. 21 Chaudhuri V, Tayal R, Nayak B, Acharya SK, Panda SK. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease: full-length genome and analysis of mutant surface promoter. Gastroenterology 2004;127:1356-1371. 22 Zahn A, Li C, Danso K, Candotti D, Owusu-Ofori S, Temple J, et al. Molecular characterization of occult hepatitis B virus in genotype E-infected subjects. J Gen Virol 2008;89:409-418. 23
prostate cancer specimens they investigated. This phenomenon indicated that high-risk HPV infection is correlated with the occurrence and development of prostate cancer; this correlation was also found in subsequent studies [ 7 ]. The early open reading frame (ORF) (E) of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. Araujo-Neto et al . [ 8 ] collected 104 prostate cancer specimens from northeastern Brazil, and their test results showed negative expression of HPV16 E6/E7. Thus, they believed that HPV infection was not the
Li-jun Peng, Jin-sheng Guo, Zhe Zhang, Li-li Liu, Yi-rong Cao, Hong Shi, Jian Wang, Scott L. Friedman, John J. Sninsky and Ji-yao Wang
;117:315-331. 4 Karlsen TH, Melum E, Franke A. The utility of genome-wide association studies in hepatology. Hepatology 2010;51:1833-1842. 5 Huang H, Shiffman ML, Cheung RC, Layden TJ, Friedman S, Abar OT, et al. Identification of two gene variants associated with risk of advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2006;130:1679-1687. 6 Huang H, Shiffman ML, Friedman S, Venkatesh R, Bzowej N, Abar OT, et al. A 7 gene signature identifies the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology
Yu-lian Ren and Yao Xie
Objective To investigate the dynamic change of hepatitis B virus quasispecies within complete genome during the early stage of IFN-α treatment and its impact on virological response.
Methods Sixteen patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving IFN-α treatment were investigated. HBV DNA was extracted from serum sample at baseline and week 12. The complete genome of HBV was amplified, then cloned and sequenced. The quasispecies heterogeneity of HBV complete genome was depicted at baseline and week 12.
Results The quasispecies heterogeneity of the genome except for C-ORF were comparable in three groups at baseline and week 12. The quasispecies diversity at amino acid levels of responders within C-ORF were higher than that of non-responders at baseline. The quasispecies diversity within the C-ORF of partial responders was reduced in the early stage of IFN-α treatment. Furthermore, the mean genetic distance at amino acid levels of partial responders was significantly higher than that of the non-responders at week 12. The evolutionary rate was not different between non-responders and partial responders.
Conclusions In the immune clearance phase, the patients who had greater viral quasispecies diversity within C-ORF at amino acid level had more chance to obtain the early virological response during IFN-α treatment.
Jun Li, Shi-hong Li, Gui-qiang Wang and Hong Zhao
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive lymphoprolifetative disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, unusual pattern of anti- EBV antibodies, and/or increased EBV genomes in affected tissues. Most cases are from Asia. So far, there is hardly any adult case reported from mainland of China. We herein presented a 33-year-old man with fever, facial erythema and rash, lymphadenopathy, lower limbs weakness, splenomegaly and liver lesion. EBV VCA, EA and EBNA were all positive. EBV DNA could be found in serum and PBMC. In situ hybridization of EBV encoded RNA in skin and liver biopsy was positive. Viral load in serum decreased under interferon alpha therapy. To our knowledge, it’s the first adult case reported from mainland of China.
Ali Azizi, Hamidreza Ardalani and Bernd Honermeier
Introduction: Molecular markers are the examples of the contribution of genome technology to medicinal plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) for pharmaceutical quality.
Objective: Forty-two accessions of Origanum vulgare L. originating from Europe were evaluated to detect genomic and chemotypic polymorphisms and to discover possible associations between them.
Methods: A total of 477 molecular polymorphisms including 214 AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) and 263 SAMPL (Selectively Amplified Microsatellite Polymorphic Loci) were used for genotyping. Components in the essential oils were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and two major compounds (two economically important monoterpenes: carvacrol and thymol) were investigated.
Results: Based on results, a relatively high correlation between chemotypic patterns and genetic markers was identified. Associations between traits of interest for essential oils (carvacrol and thymol content) and genetic markers were tested using five statistical methods including three General Linear Model (GLM) and two unified Mixed Linear Model (MLM) approaches. Significant associations were found for 3 AFLP and 20 SAMPL with three key traits including essential oil yield, carvacrol and thymol content.
Conclusion: These associations can constitute a useful starting point for marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the results provide the basis for molecular breeding of O. vulgare for pharmaceutical purposes.