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Akanksha Singh, Dhananjay Singh Mankotia and Mohammad Irshad

discontinuation of therapy. HCV is an RNA virus and belongs to genus Hepacivirus family Flaviviridae . It was first characterized by Choo et al . in 1989.[ 3 ] Its genome consists of 9.6 kb single-stranded RNA of positive polarity and an open reading frame of 9033 to 9099 nucleotide flanked by a highly conserved 5′ and 3′ noncoding region (NCR).[ 4 ] HCV genome appears as heterogeneous population of different quasi-species that have been categorized into at least six genotypes and more than 100 subgenotypes or isotypes. The presence of HCV genotypes in human population

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Lawrence Grouse

REFERENCES 1. Grouse L. COPD diagnosis: genome first. J Thorac Dis 2015; doi:10.3978/j.ssn.2072-1439.2015.10.38, in press. 2. Coe B, Girirajan S, Eichler E. The Genetic Variability and Commonality of Neurodevelopmental Disease. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012; (2): 118-29. 3. Grouse L. Can epigenetic changes cause COPD? Canaries in the coal mines. J Thorac Dis 2013; 5: 80-1. 4. Rennard S, Locantore N, Delafont B, Tal-Singer R, Silverman EK, Vestbo J, et al . Identification of five COPD subgroups with different prognoses in the

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Lawrence Grouse

not entirely clear based on information currently available; however, an article by Jasanoff et al . [ 3 ] posted on the US National Academy of Science’s website as part of the promotion for the recent NAS/ NAM International Summit meeting on gene editing contains arguments that support the US government’s position on the regulation of genome science research and the moratorium it proposes. The article was also published in the NAS’s Issues in Science and Technology publication, and even though gene editing is a controversial subject, the NAS did not post or

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Ming Hong and Guangsheng He

targeted next generation sequencing (NGS), functional genomics and genome-engineering, with confirmed EVI1 overexpression and harboring an inv(3)(q21.3q26.2) or a t(3;3)(q21.3q26.2), including 38 primary bone marrow samples from patients, that is AML ( n =33), chronic myeloid leukemia – blast crisis (CML-BC, n =2), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n =3), as well as three cell lines (MUTZ-3, molm-1 and UCSD-AML1). [ 1 ] The data showed that inv(3)/t(3;3) chromosomal rearrangements cause dysregulation of two specific AML predisposition genes, EVI1 and GATA2, by

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Yuqiao Wang, Ying Zhou and Zhiyuan Hu

primary studies carried out in laboratories have been reported as valid and effective steps to proceed to further clinical applications. Application of CTCs in breast cancer diagnosis In March 2013, Dawson et al . revealed a clear relevance between the concentration of CTCs and expected lifetime as well as the comparison between the sensitivity of three different biomarkers in diagnosis of breast cancer: Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cell-free ctDNA, and CTCs.[ 7 ] In this study, a targeted or whole-genome sequencing to track alternation in somatic genome

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Shital Patil and Anil Jadhav

classical epithelioid granuloma with giant cell. Bronchial wash for Gene Xpert/MTB Rif analysis showed MTB genome detection without rifampicin mutation. Four-drug antituberculosis treatment (ATT), consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, was initiated for 2 months as intensive phase and first 3 drugs for 4 months as continuation phase as per national guidelines for treatment of TB. After 14 days of antituberculosis therapy, chest X-ray showed radiological response to ATT, partial resolution of right middle lobe consolidation and resolving

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Shuai Wang and Guangsheng He

.48.9377 Moorman AV Robinson H Schwab C Richards SM Hancock J Mitchell CD et al Risk-directed treatment intensification significantly reduces the risk of relapse among children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21: a comparison of the MRC ALL97/99 and UKALL2003 trials J Clin Oncol 2013 31 3389 96 7 Den Boer ML, van Slegtenhorst M, De Menezes RX, Cheok MH, Buijs-Gladdines JG, Peters ST, et al . A subtype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with poor treatment outcome: a genome-wide classification study

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Borris Rosnay Tietcheu Galani, Richard Njouom and Paul Fewou Moundipa

, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) [ 21 ] and unsubtyped groups. Furthermore, there was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5B and E2 sequence clustering [ 21 ] . Further characterization of the full-length genome sequences of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates belonging to genotype 1 by Li et al . revealed nine genotype 1 subtypes among which four were described for the first time. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 141 partial NS5B sequences further differentiated 13 subtypes (1a-1m) and six additional unclassified lineages within genotype 1. As a

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Bassam Bernieh

al. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and transaminase concentration in chronic haemodialysis patients: A study with second-generation assays. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993;8:744-7. 4. Simons JN, Pilot-Matias TJ, Leary TP, Dawson GJ, Desai SM, Schlauder GG, et al. Identification of two flavivirus-like genomes in the GB hepatitis agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:3401-5. 5. Linnen J, Wages JJ, Zhang-Keck ZY, Fry KE, Krawczynski KZ, Alter H, et al. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: A transfusion

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Stephanie M. Flaig, Vincent H. Gattone and Bonnie L. Blazer-Yost

nature of the calcium-permeable cation channel TRPP2 EMBO Rep 2006 7 787 93 8 Nilius B, Owsianik G. The transient receptor potential family of ion channels. Genome Biol 2011;12: 218-29. 10.1186/gb-2011-12-3-218 Nilius B Owsianik G. The transient receptor potential family of ion channels Genome Biol 2011 12 218 29 9 Chawla A, Schwarz EJ, Dimaculangan DD, Lazar MA . Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) gamma: adipose-predominant expression and induction early in adipocyte differentiation. Endocrinol 1994;135: 798-800. 10.1210/endo.135.2.8033830 Chawla A