Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. According to Th e Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), approximately 40% of PPGLs are due to germ line mutations in one of 16 susceptibility genes, and a further 30% are due to somatic alterations in at least seven main genes (VHL, EPAS1, CSDE1, MAX, HRAS, NF1, RET, and possibly KIF1B). Th e diagnosis of malignant PPGL was straight forward in most cases as it was defined as presence of PPGL in non-chromaffin tissues. Accordingly, there is an extreme need for new diagnostic marker(s) to identify tumors with malignant prospective. Th e aim of this study was to review all suggested genetic and epigenetic alterations that are remarkably different between benign and malignant PPGLs. It seems that more than two genetic mutation clusters in PPGLs and other genetic and methylation biomarkers could be targeted for malignancy discrimination in different studies.
Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adipokine NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) silencing on the expression of genes encoding IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and some other proliferation related proteins in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of the possible significance of this adipokine in intergenic interactions.
Methods. The silencing of NAMPT mRNA was introduced by NAMPT specific siRNA. The expression level of NAMPT, IGFBP3, IRS1, HK2, PER2, CLU, BNIP3, TPD52, GADD45A, and MKI67 genes was studied in U87 glioma cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Anti-visfatin antibody was used for detection of NAMPT protein by Western-blot analysis.
Results. It was shown that the silencing of NAMPT mRNA led to a strong down-regulation of NAMPT protein and significant modification of the expression of IRS1, IGFBP3, CLU, HK2, BNIP3, and MKI67 genes in glioma cells and a strong up-regulation of IGFBP3 and IRS1 and down-regulation of CLU, BNIP3, HK2, and MKI67 gene expressions. At the same time, no significant changes were detected in the expression of GADD45A, PER2, and TPD52 genes in glioma cells treated by siRNA specific to NAMPT. Furthermore, the silencing of NAMPT mRNA suppressed the glioma cell proliferation.
Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrated that silencing of NAMPT mRNA with corresponding down-regulation of NAMPT protein and suppression of the glioma cell proliferation affected the expression of IRS1 gene as well as many other genes encoding the proliferation related proteins. It is possible that dysregulation of most of the studied genes in glioma cells after silencing of NAMPT is reflected by a complex of intergenic interactions and that NAMPT is an important factor for genome stability and regulatory mechanisms contributing to the control of glioma cell metabolism and proliferation.
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