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Joanna Kołsut, Paulina Borówka, Błażej Marciniak, Ewelina Wójcik, Arkadiusz Wojtasik, Dominik Strapagiel and Jarosław Dastych

-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis 2005, 49, 269–273. 5. Ge X.Z., Jiang J., Pan Z., Hu L., Wang S., Wang H., Fan H.: Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140) shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1: K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains. PloS One 2014, 9, e112048. 6. Giufré M., Accogli M., Graziani C., Busani L., Cerquetti M.: Whole-genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains sharing the same

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Chunxiao Liu, Mingliang Li, Xingwang Yin, Hongliang Zhang, Lirun Xiang, Hongyue Zhai, Congcong Wang, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Zhijun Tian and Chaoliang Leng

Introduction Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious, lethal, and widespread swine disease caused by CSF virus (CSFV) and is classified by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) as a notifiable disease ( 5 ). CSFV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. The family also contains bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) ( 9 , 19 ). The CSFV genome is approximately 12.3 kb and contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a

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Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Maciej Frant and Andrzej Mamczur

shares some evolutionary lineage with mammalian retroviruses, but the potential to infect humans is negligible ( 12 ). In spite of the possible seroconversion in humans and low titres of antibodies present in human sera the infection is non-productive. The virus is represented by a sole serotype which may be differentiated into three antigenic subtypes. The capsid of REV is approximately 100 nm in diameter. Its density determined on a sucrose density gradient is between 1.16 and 1.18 g/mL. The genome comprises single stranded RNA (ssRNA), and on the basis of genomic

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Ewa Borzym, Joanna Maj-Paluch, Magdalena Stachnik, Marek Matras and Michał Reichert

., Chilmonczyk S., Castric J., Brémont M.: Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavius. J Virol 2000, 74, 173-183. 15. Weston J., Villoing S., Brémont M., Castric J., Pfeffer M., Jewhurst V., McLoughlin M., R⊘dseth O.M., Christie K.E., Koumans J., Todd D.: Comparison of two aquatic alphaviruses, salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus, by using genome sequencing analysis, monoclonal reactivity, and cross-infection. J Virol 2002, 76, 61556163.

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Ning Jia, Yunwen Ou, Zygmunt Pejsak, Yongguang Zhang and Jie Zhang

.V., Sánchez-Vizcaino J.M., Ståhl K.: Development of a suspension microarray for the genotyping of African swine fever virus targeting the SNPs in the c-terminal end of the p72 gene region of the genome. Transbound Emerg Dis 2013, 60, 378–383. 46. Leitão A., Cartaxeiro C., Coelho R., Cruz B., Parkhouse R.M., Portugal F., Vigário J.D., Martins C.L.: The non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus isolate ASFV/NH/P68 provides a model for defining the protective anti-virus immune response. J Gen Virol 2001, 82, 513–523. 47. Lithgow P., Takamatsu H., Werling D

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Justyna Miłek and Katarzyna Blicharz-Domańska

Introduction Among the most abundant viruses infecting a wide variety of animals, including birds and humans are representatives of the large Coronaviridae family. Their virions contain the largest single-stranded positive sense RNA (ssRNA) genome, the feature which distinguishes them from other known viral RNA genomes ( 19 ). Similarly to other RNA viruses, coronaviruses (CoVs) are characterised by high genetic diversity driven by mutation and recombination, which can lead to the emergence of new viruses. Such new pathogens can have new features which even

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Ya-Li Liu, Yao-Zhong Ding, Jun-Fei Dai, Bing Ma, Ji-Jun He, Wei-Min Ma, Jian-Liang Lv, Xiao-Yuan Ma, Yun-Wen Ou, Jun Wang, Yong-Sheng Liu, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Lu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xiang-Tao Liu, Yong-Guang Zhang and Jie Zhang

–72. 15. Sangula A.K., Siegismund H.R., Belsham G.J., Balinda S.N., Masembe C., Muwanika V.B.: Low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype C virus in Kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field. Epidemiologic Infect 2011, 139, 189–196. 16. Valdazo-Gonzalez B., Knowles N.J., Hammond J., King D.P.: Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip). J Virol 2012, 86, 8901–8902. 17. Yoon H., Yoon S.S., Wee S.H., Kim Y.J., Kim B.: Clinical manifestations of

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Mihaela Grigore, Sergiu Teleman, Didona Ungureanu and Alina Mares

. Schiffman M, Wentzensen N, Wacholder S, Kinney W, Gage JC, Castle PE. Human papillomavirus testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2011 Mar 2;103(5):368-83. 18. Cuzick J, Szarewski A, Cubie H, Hulman G, Kitchener H, Luesley D. Management of women who test positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus: the HART study. Lancet. 2003; 362(9399):1871-6. 19. Wetnzensen N, Vinokurova S, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Systematic review of genomic integration sites of human papillomavirus genomes in epithelial dysplasia

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Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka


Introduction: The genomes of nine H5 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) strains identified in wild birds in Poland between 2010 and 2015 were sequenced, and their phylogenetic relationship was determined.

Material and Methods: AIV genome segments were amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were sequenced using Sanger method. Phylogenetic trees were generated in MEGA6 software and digital genotyping approach was used to visualise the relationship between analysed strains and other AIVs.

Results: High genetic diversity was found in the analysed strains as multiple subgroups were identified in phylogenetic trees. In the HA tree, Polish strains clustered in two distinct subclades. High diversity was found for PB2, PB1, PA and NP, since 5-8 sublineages could be distinguished. Each strain had a different gene constellation, although relationship of as much as six out of eight gene segments was observed between two isolates. A relationship with poultry isolates was found for at least one segment of each Polish strain.

Conclusion: The genome configuration of tested strains indicates extensive reassortment, although the preference for specific gene constellation could be noticed. A significant relationship with isolates of poultry origin underlines the need for constant monitoring of the AIV gene pool circulating in the natural reservoir.

Open access

Wojciech Kozdru, Hanna Czekaj and Mariusz Lorek


The aim of the study was to determine the aetiologic agent causing deaths in two flocks of Pekin ducklings at the age of 12 d in Poland. on the basis of clinical symptoms and pathological changes, viral hepatitis infection was suspected in the birds. During the necropsy, liver sections were collected, from which total cellular RNA was isolated. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using primers complementary to the pre-S region of the duck hepatitis virus genome. In all liver samples, the presence of a 530 bp PCR product was detected. The RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of genetic material of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DH type 1) in the examined ducklings.