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Joanna Kołsut, Paulina Borówka, Błażej Marciniak, Ewelina Wójcik, Arkadiusz Wojtasik, Dominik Strapagiel and Jarosław Dastych

-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis 2005, 49, 269–273. 5. Ge X.Z., Jiang J., Pan Z., Hu L., Wang S., Wang H., Fan H.: Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140) shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1: K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains. PloS One 2014, 9, e112048. 6. Giufré M., Accogli M., Graziani C., Busani L., Cerquetti M.: Whole-genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains sharing the same

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Chunxiao Liu, Mingliang Li, Xingwang Yin, Hongliang Zhang, Lirun Xiang, Hongyue Zhai, Congcong Wang, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Zhijun Tian and Chaoliang Leng

Introduction Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious, lethal, and widespread swine disease caused by CSF virus (CSFV) and is classified by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) as a notifiable disease ( 5 ). CSFV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. The family also contains bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) ( 9 , 19 ). The CSFV genome is approximately 12.3 kb and contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a

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Muyao Zhang, Xing Wei and Zhenfei Wang

every year [ 4 ]. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the mechanism of promotion of initiation and progression of hepatoma by HBV. HBx protein is one of the products of the HBV genome. Recent studies have found that HBx protein has great effects on the biological behaviors of hepatocytes and hepatoma cells, and that it plays important roles in promoting the initiation and progression of hepatoma, thus holding promise to becoming a new molecular target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. 2 HBx protein The X protein (HBx) encoded by the X region

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Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Maciej Frant and Andrzej Mamczur

shares some evolutionary lineage with mammalian retroviruses, but the potential to infect humans is negligible ( 12 ). In spite of the possible seroconversion in humans and low titres of antibodies present in human sera the infection is non-productive. The virus is represented by a sole serotype which may be differentiated into three antigenic subtypes. The capsid of REV is approximately 100 nm in diameter. Its density determined on a sucrose density gradient is between 1.16 and 1.18 g/mL. The genome comprises single stranded RNA (ssRNA), and on the basis of genomic

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Xuemei Li and Xiaoxia Li

the main cause of chronic mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection in East Asia [ 23 ]. The HBV genome is unique and precise in structure but is susceptible to mutation, and mutation at certain specific sites may be associated with chronic HBV infection. The preS deletion mutation is the most frequently reported mutation. A large in-frame deletion mutation has been detected in the preS region of the gene encoding the HBV envelope protein, and the mutation sites are often clustered at the 3′ end of the preS1 region and the 5′ end of the preS2 region [ 24

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Ewa Borzym, Joanna Maj-Paluch, Magdalena Stachnik, Marek Matras and Michał Reichert

., Chilmonczyk S., Castric J., Brémont M.: Rainbow trout sleeping disease virus is an atypical alphavius. J Virol 2000, 74, 173-183. 15. Weston J., Villoing S., Brémont M., Castric J., Pfeffer M., Jewhurst V., McLoughlin M., R⊘dseth O.M., Christie K.E., Koumans J., Todd D.: Comparison of two aquatic alphaviruses, salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus, by using genome sequencing analysis, monoclonal reactivity, and cross-infection. J Virol 2002, 76, 61556163.

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Ning Jia, Yunwen Ou, Zygmunt Pejsak, Yongguang Zhang and Jie Zhang

.V., Sánchez-Vizcaino J.M., Ståhl K.: Development of a suspension microarray for the genotyping of African swine fever virus targeting the SNPs in the c-terminal end of the p72 gene region of the genome. Transbound Emerg Dis 2013, 60, 378–383. 46. Leitão A., Cartaxeiro C., Coelho R., Cruz B., Parkhouse R.M., Portugal F., Vigário J.D., Martins C.L.: The non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus isolate ASFV/NH/P68 provides a model for defining the protective anti-virus immune response. J Gen Virol 2001, 82, 513–523. 47. Lithgow P., Takamatsu H., Werling D

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Jun Cheng, Min Quan, Min Li, Shun-ai Liu and Qi Wang

;89:409-418. 20 Ngui SL, Hallet R, Teo CG. Natural and iatrogenic variation in hepatitis B virus. Rev Med Virol 1999;9:183-209. 21 Chaudhuri V, Tayal R, Nayak B, Acharya SK, Panda SK. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease: full-length genome and analysis of mutant surface promoter. Gastroenterology 2004;127:1356-1371. 22 Zahn A, Li C, Danso K, Candotti D, Owusu-Ofori S, Temple J, et al. Molecular characterization of occult hepatitis B virus in genotype E-infected subjects. J Gen Virol 2008;89:409-418. 23

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Wenyan Yang

prostate cancer specimens they investigated. This phenomenon indicated that high-risk HPV infection is correlated with the occurrence and development of prostate cancer; this correlation was also found in subsequent studies [ 7 ]. The early open reading frame (ORF) (E) of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. Araujo-Neto et al . [ 8 ] collected 104 prostate cancer specimens from northeastern Brazil, and their test results showed negative expression of HPV16 E6/E7. Thus, they believed that HPV infection was not the

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Justyna Miłek and Katarzyna Blicharz-Domańska

Introduction Among the most abundant viruses infecting a wide variety of animals, including birds and humans are representatives of the large Coronaviridae family. Their virions contain the largest single-stranded positive sense RNA (ssRNA) genome, the feature which distinguishes them from other known viral RNA genomes ( 19 ). Similarly to other RNA viruses, coronaviruses (CoVs) are characterised by high genetic diversity driven by mutation and recombination, which can lead to the emergence of new viruses. Such new pathogens can have new features which even