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Loet Leydesdorff, Wouter de Nooy and Lutz Bornmann
Ramanujacharyulu (1964) provided a graph-theoretical algorithm to select the winner of a tournament on the basis of the total scores of all the matches, whereby both gains and losses are taken into consideration. Prathap & Nishy (under review) proposed to use this power-weakness ratio (PWR) for citation analysis and journal ranking. PWR has been proposed for measuring journal impact with the arguments that it handles the rows and columns in the asymmetrical citation matrix symmetrically, its recursive algorithm (which it shares with other
Haiyun Xu, Chao Wang, Kun Dong, Rui Luo, Zenghui Yue and Hongshen Pang
study: good immunogenicity, production readiness, high safety, good profitability, low cost of production, high-efficiency expression, high purity, active immunization, and good repeatability.
We construct a two mode network of the institutions that have more than 10 GEV patent applications and nine technology-effect, as shown in Figure 3 . The larger the institution nodes in the graph, the more technology-effect the institution’s patents have; the larger the technology-effect nodes, the more institutions there are involved in this technology-effect; the thicker
Esteban Fernández Tuesta, Carlos Garcia-Zorita, Rosario Romera Ayllon and Elías Sanz-Casado
plots the original values versus the values estimated with the robust MLR method. The graphs may be interpreted as in Figure 2 : note that the country/region positions are largely the same in the two sets of figures.
Actual vs robust regression model-estimated number of universities on the ARWU (excluding observations with high influence)
When the HDI for each country/region in the ARWU top 500 was raised by 1%, the number of ranked universities did not rise in the same proportion. For some countries/regions, this change had no effect on their
quantitative measures tend to have some adverse effects. Researchers seem to adjust to the requirements very easily and change their publication patterns and behaviors. Such systems are prone to “gaming,” too, and researchers become more “opportunistic” (e.g., publication “inflation”) and less ethical (e.g., “fake” citations) in time. Unintended consequences of PRFSs in several countries (e.g., Australia, Czech Republic, and Spain) were reported in the literature ( Butler, 2003 ; Butler, 2004 ; Good et al., 2015 ; Osuna, Cruz-Castro, & Sanz- Menéndez, 2011 ; Tonta, 2014