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Athanasios Psarras, Dimitra Mertyri and Panagiotis Tsaklis

gait. Scand J Rehabil Med , 1980, 12 (3), 107–112. 5. Wernick J., Volpe R.G., Lower extremity function and normal mechanics. In: Valmassy R.I. (ed.), Clinical biomechanics of the lower extremities. Mosby, St. Louis 1996, 1–57. 6. Lamoreaux L.W., Kinematic measurements in the study of human walking. Bull Prosthet Res , 1971, 10 (15), 3–84. 7. Sekiya N., Nagasaki H., Ito H., Furuna T., Optimal walking in terms of variability in step length. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther , 1997 26 (5), 266–272, doi:10.2519/jospt.1997.26.5.266. 8. Hansen A

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John Ward, Jesse Coats and Amir Pourmoghaddam

Numida meleagris. Organismal metabolism and biomechanics. J Exp Biol, 2006; 209: 2050-2063 Matsuo T, Hashimoto M, Koyanagi M, Hashizume K. Asymmetric load-carrying in young and elderly women: relationship with lower coordination. Gait Posture, 2008; 28: 517-520 Mattila V, Parkkari J, Korpela H, Pihlajamaki H. Hospitalization for injuries among Finnish conscripts in 1990-1999. Accid Anal Prev, 2006; 38: 99-104 Mattila V, Sillanpaa P, Visuri T, Pihlajamaki H. Incidence of low back pain hospitalisation during military

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Gustavo Leporace, Jomilto Praxedes, Igor Carvalho, Sérgio Pinto and Luiz Alberto Batista

), 355-362, doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.018598. 16. Robertson D.G.E., Caldwell G.E., Hamill J., Kamen G., Whittlesey S.N., Research Methods in Biomechanics. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2004. 17. Weyand P.G., Smith B.R., Puyau M.R., Butte N.F., The massspecific energy cost of human walking is set by stature. J Exp Biol, 2010, 213 (23), 3972z-3979, doi: 10.1242/ jeb.048199. 18. Pulido-Valdeolivas I., Gómez-Andrés D., Martín-Gonzalo J.A., López-López J., Gómez-Barrena E., Sánchez- Hernández J.J. et al., Gait parameters in a

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Marquita Volken

Abstract

Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

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Jihong Park, Matthew K. Seeley, Devin Francom, C. Shane Reese and J. Ty Hopkins

Seeley MK, Park J, King D, Hopkins JT. A novel experimental knee-pain model affects perceived pain and movement biomechanics. J Athl Train , 2013; 48: 337-345 10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.02 Seeley MK Park J King D Hopkins JT. A novel experimental knee-pain model affects perceived pain and movement biomechanics J Athl Train 2013 48 337 345 Sulzer JS, Gordon KE, Dhaher YY, Peshkin MA, Patton JL. Preswing knee flexion assistance is coupled with hip abduction in people with stiff-knee gait after stroke. Stroke , 2010; 41: 1709-1714 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.586917 Sulzer JS

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Andrzej Wit and Adam Czaplicki

References Winter, D. A., Human balance and posture control during standing and walking. Gait Posture , 1995, 3 (4), 193-214. DOI: 10.1016/0966-6362(96)82849-9. Nigg, B. M., Herzog, W. (eds.), Biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. John Willey & Sons, Chichester 1995. Paul, J. P., Bioengineering studies of the forces transmitted by joint. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1965. Seireg, A., Arvikar, R. J., A mathematical model for evaluation of forces in lower

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Ray Lloyd and Carlton Cooke

selected biomechanical parameters describing walking gait. Ergonomics , 1985, 28, 1347-1362. DOI: 10.1080/00140138508963251. Kinoshita H., Bates B., Effects of two load carrying systems on ground reaction forces during walking. In: Matsui H., Kobayashi K. (eds.) Biomechanics VIII A&B: Proceedings of the 8 th International Congress of Biomechanics, Nagoya 1981. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, 574-581. Lloyd R., Cooke C. B., Kinetic changes associated with load carriage using two rucksack designs. Ergonomics

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Wanda Forczek and Robert Staszkiewicz

L. Gait asymmetry following successful surgical treatment of ankle fracture in young adults. Clin Orthop Rel Res , 1995; (311): 262-269 Bishop MD, Brunt D, Pathere N, Patel B. The interaction between leading and trailing limbs during stopping in humans. Neurosci Lett , 2002; 323: 1-4 Bober T. Biomechanics of walking and running . AWF Wrocław, Studies and Monographs, 8; 1985 Crowe A, Samson MM, Hoitsma MJ, van Ginkel AA. The influence of walking speed on parameters of gait symmetry determined from ground reaction

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Davide Viggiano, Katia Corona, Simone Cerciello, Michele Vasso and Alfredo Schiavone-Panni

References Barrack R, Skinner H, Cook S. Proprioception of the knee joint: paradoxical effect on training. Am J Sport Med, 1984; 63: 175-181 Bollen S. Ligament injuries of the knee - limping forward? Br J Sports Med, 1998; 32: 82-84 Bonfim T, Paccola C, Barela J. Proprioceptive and Behavior Impairments in Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Knees. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2003; 84: 1217-1223 Chen HC, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB, Schultz AB. Stepping over obstacles: gait patterns of healthy young and old adults. J Gerontol

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Jaqueline Rios, Mário de Andrade and Aluisio Avila

References Winter D. A., Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 2 nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1990. Nordin M., Frankel V. H., Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. 3 rd edition. Lippincott Williams & Williams Wilkins. Philadelphia 2001. Viel E., The human gait, running and jumping: biomechanics, research, standards and disorders [in Portuguese]. Manole, Săo Paulo 2001. Smith L. K., Weiis E. L., Don Lehmkuhl L