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Johnny Nilsson and Daniele Cardinale

.), Science and football (pp. 95-107). London E&FN Spon. 4. Arnason, A., Sigurdsson, S.T., & Gudmundsson, A. (2004). Physical fitness, injuries, and team performance in soccer. Medicine Science Sports Exercise , 36 (2), 278-85. 5. Bansgbo, J., Norregaardl, L., & Thorso, F. (1991). Activity profile of competition soccer. Cananadian Journal Sport Science ,16, 110–116. 6. Bansgbo, J., & Michalsik L. (2002). Assessment and physiological capacity of elite soccer players. In W. Spinks, T. Reilly, A. Murphy (Eds.), Science and Football IV (pp . 53–62). London

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Martin Mikulič, Pavol Gregora, Ľuboš Benkovský and Pavol Peráček

. BARNSLEY, R. H., A.H. THOMPSON and P. LEGAULT, 1992. Family Planning: Football Style. The Relative Age Effect in Football. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 27 (1), p. 77-86. 5. BAXTER-JONES et al., 1995. Growth and development of male gymnasts, swimmers, soccer and tennis players: A longitudinal study. Annals of Human Biology , 22 (5), p. 381-394. 6. CAMPO et al., 2010. The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9 (2), p. 190-198. 7. COSTA et al., 2012. Relative age effect

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Johnny Nilsson and Daniele Cardinale

References 1. Apor, P. (1988). Science and football. London E&FN Spon, 95-107. 2. Bangsbo, J., Nörregaard, L., & Thorsöe, F. (1991) Activity profile of competition soccer. Can J Sports Sci , Jun; 16 (2): 110-116. 3. Bangsbo, J. (1994). The physiology of soccer: with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand , 15, Suppl. 619: 1-156. 4. Borg, G., Ljunggren, G., & Ceci, R. (1985). The increase of perceived exertion, aches and pain in the legs, heart rate and blood lactate during exercise on a bicycle ergometer

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Csaba Gábriš, Martin Kojnok, Marián Vanderka and Milan Kabát

References 1. COOK, G., L. BURTON and B. HOOGENBOOM, 2006. Pre-participation screening: The use of fundamental movements as an Assessment of function – part 1. N Am J Sports Phys Ther , 1(2): 62-72. ISSN 1558-6162. 2. EKSTRAND, J., M. HÄGGLUND and M. WALDÉN, 2011. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study. Br J Sports Med, 45(7): 553-558. ISSN 1473-0480. 3. GRYGOROWICZ M, T. PIONTEK and W. DUDZINSKI, 2014. Evaluation of Functional Limitations in Female Soccer Players and Their Relationship with

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Mohammed Zerf, Hadje Besultan, Norddine Attouti, Blidi Touati and Moulay Idriss Mokkedes

. 13. GIPA, 2007. Water Polo Goalkeeper . Zagreb: Library of University Split. 14. GOSWAMY, N., 2014. The Medical Science of Total Body Transformation . US: Lulu Publishing Services. 15. GRAY A. J. & D. G. JENKINS, 2010. Match Analysis and the Physiological Demands of Australian Football. Sports Med. 40 (4): 347-60. 16. GRIFFIN. J. C., 2015. Client-Centered Exercise Prescription . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 17. HADJAR, K. H., S. M., KOUTCHOUK, M. MIME, M. ZERF & Z. FATEH, 2016. Which Training Improves the Ability to Control and

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Sunitha Ravi

. B, Yirga, & Bizuneh, B. (2014). Football shooting performance changes during yoga practices and aerobic dance among college men football players. IJSR - Vol 3 - September 2014 . 8. Powell, J. S., & Foss, B. K. D. (1999). Injury patterns in selected high school sports: a review of the 1995-1997 seasons. J Athl Train. 34: 277-84, Safe kids worldwide survey - year 2014 . 9. Moreiraa, N. B., Mazzardob, O., Vagettic, G. C., Oliveirab, V. D., & Campos, W. D. (2015). Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical

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Pavel Šmela, Petra Pačesová, Stanislav Kraček and Dan Hájovský

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

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Pavol Peráček, Matúš Bôžik and Martin Mikulič

football players. In: The Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 18.3: 491-497. 8. GREGSON, W. & B. DRUST, 2000. The physiology of football drills. In: Insight 2000; 3 (4): 1-2 9. HILL-HAAS, S. V., B. DAWSON, F. M. IMPELLIZZERI, & A. J. COUTTS, 2011. Physiology of small-sided games training in football. In: Sports medicine. 41 (3): 199-220. 10. HOLIENKA, M., 2005. Kondičný tréning vo futbale . Peter Mačura-PEEM. 11. HOLIENKA, M. et al., 2012. Tréningové a zápasové zaťaženie hráča v športových hrách. In: Vedecký zborník príspevkov ku

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Lilita Ozoliņa, Inese Pontaga and Igors Ķīsis

Heather M., and Spriet Lawrence L. (2010), On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players’ drinking water or a carbohydrate–electrolyte solution. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 35 : 328–335, doi:10.1139/H10-027 12. Shirreffs S. (2010) Hydration: special issue for playing football in warm and hot environments. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 20 (Suppl. 3): 90-94.

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Nina Andersz and Dariusz Boguszewski

literature from a self-determination perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 8: 535-566. 20. Reese L.M.S., Pittsinger R., Yang J. (2012). Effectiveness of psychological intervention following sport injury. Journal of Sorts and Health Science , 1: 71-79. 21. Rozen W.M., Horne D.J.L. (2007). The association of psychological factors with injury incidence and outcome in the Australian Football League. Individual Differences Research , 5(1): 73-80. 22. Schneider M., Graham D. (2009). Personality, physical fitness, and affective response to exercise