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is the second most common type of cancer in the male population. Radiation therapy, however, causes a) injury to endothelial cells and smooth muscle fibers, b) rupture of smaller vessels in the area of the prostate and penis, c) subsequent vascular stenosis and arterial insufficiency, d) reduction of the cavernous nerve kinetic response, e) damage to peripheral nerve fibers, eventually leading to erectile dysfunction.
Aim : To search for and summarize the therapeutic options for radiation-induced erectile dysfunction in prostate cancer patients, with a view to
The podocyte is a highly differentiated cell located in the outer space of the glomerular basement
membrane that deals with many different functions. This phylogenetically preserved cell that is
responsible for the virtually absence of proteins in the urine lacks of the capacity to divide under
normal conditions. When podocytes receive molecular insults, which normally occur during stress
conditions as glomerulonephritis, hyperfiltration or metabolic disturbances, they adapt to the new
situation by contracting their actin fibers. This adaptive behavior puts at risk the quality of the
plasmatic filtration due to the denudation of the glomerular basement membrane, the potential
mesangial inflammation and the appearance of proteinuria; podocytes run the risk of detachment
from the basement membrane due to a decrease in the adherence to the surrounding matrix
after contraction, a process called foot processes effacement. Podocytes change their shape
and under constant mechanical stress they finally detach, rendering the glomerular basement
membrane unprotected unless other contiguous podocytes are capable of covering the surface.
However, these still anchored podocytes are generally also under the same stress situation and
follow the same pathway. Podocyturia refers to the presence of these differentiated cells in the
urinary sediment. Noteworthy, the podocytes that are encountered in the urine are viable despite
the glomerular hostile environment and the urinary acidity. Podocyturia can precede proteinuria
and can aggravate it. Therefore, in diseases that can threaten the glomerular normal environment,
the presence and the quantification of urinary podocytes can be of remarkable relevance, as
it can herald or accompany the appearance of proteinuria, and could offer another view to the
interpretation and clinical approach and outcome of proteinuria. However, its identification needs
a wide-spread training among biochemists and technicians, as well as commercially available kits.
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12. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. 14th Edition, Section II, Chapter 14, Biology of scheletal muscle , pg. 227
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9. Kim JH, Jia Y, Lee JG, et al. Hypolipidemic and antiinflammation activities of fermented soybean fibers from meju in C57BL/6 J Mice. Phytother Res 28: 13553-41, 2014.
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12. Bakhtiary A Yassin
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in their gut flora [ 4 ]. Feeding with breast-milk containing different milk microbiota and maternal antibodies is another way that may affect the development of their gut flora [ 4 ].
During growth, the composition of the gut microbiota are affected by individual’s lifestyle, diet, and medication use [ 4 ]. Westernized diet with high-saturated fatty acids and sucrose, and low fiber, promote epithelial inflammation and stimulate the pathogenic bacterial growth inside the gut [ 6 ]. Frequent use of the antibiotics further affects the healthy commensals growth and
Güleser Saylam, Ömer Bayır, Salih Sinan Gültekin, Ferda Alparslan Pınarlı, Ünsal Han, Mehmet Hakan Korkmaz, Mehmet Eser Sancaktar, İlkan Tatar, Mustafa Fevzi Sargon and Emel Çadallı Tatar
Electron microscopy findings
TEM demonstrated cellular damage and fibrosis ( Figure 2C - D ). Intercellular edema and intracellular vacuolization showed cellular damage.
Figure 2 The figure (magnification × 5000) demonstrates the findings of electron microscopy at months 1 and 6. ( A and B ). Normal salivary gland samples of the control group. A and D . Intracellular vacuoles and intercellular edema related to radioiodine in Group 1. E and F . We observed intracellular vacuoles, intercellular edema, nucleus of fibroblast and collagen fibers (fibrosis) at 1