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Energy Cost of Resistance Exercises: an Uptade

: 91-112. Gollnick P, Armstrong R, Saubert C, Piehl K, Saltin B. Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men. J Appl Physiol, 1972; 33: 312-319. Hunter G, Seelhorst D, Snyder S. Comparison of metabolic and heart rate responses to super slow vs. traditional resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 2003; 17(1):76-8. Margaria R, Cerretelli O, Aghemo P, Sassi G. Energy cost of running. J Appl Physiol, 1963; 18: 367-370. Medbø

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Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Handball Players from Teams with a Different Ranking

: 961-968 Bosco C, Komi PV, Tihanyi J, Fekete G, Apor P. Mechanical power test and fiber composition of human leg extensor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol , 1983; 51: 129-135 Bosco C, Luhtanen P, Komi PV. A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol , 1982; 50: 273-282 Buchheit M, Lepretre PM, Behaegel AL, Millet GP, Cuvelier G, Ahmaidi S. Cardiorespiratory responses during running and sport-specific exercises in handball players. J Sci Med Sport , 2009; 12

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Bilateral and Unilateral Asymmetries of Isokinetic Strength and Flexibility in Male Young Professional Soccer Players

-52 Arnason A, Sigurdsson SB, Gudmundsson A, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Risk factors for injuries in football. Am J Sports Med , 2004; 32: 5S-16S Bottinelli R, Canepari M, Pellegrino MA, Reggiani C. Force-velocity properties of human skeletal muscle fibres: myosin heavy chain isoform and temperature dependence. J Physiol , 1996; 495(2): 573-586 Bradley PS, Portas MD. The relationship between preseason range of motion and muscle strain injury in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res , 2007; 21(4): 1155-59 Brito J

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High-Intensity Small-Sided Games versus Repeated Sprint Training in Junior Soccer Players

Chamari K, Hachana Y, Kaouech F, Jeddi R, Moussa-Chamari I, Wisløff U. Endurance training and testing with the ball in young elite soccer players. Brit J Sport Med , 2005; 39: 24–8 10.1136/bjsm.2003.009985 Chamari K Hachana Y Kaouech F Jeddi R Moussa-Chamari I Wisløff U. Endurance training and testing with the ball in young elite soccer players Brit J Sport Med 2005 39 24 8 Dawson B, Fitzsimons M, Green S, Goodman C, Carey M, Cole K. Changes in performance, muscle metabolites, enzymes and fibre types after short sprint training. Eur J Appl Physiol O , 1998; 78: 163

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Neuromuscular Control During the Bench Press Movement in an Elite Disabled and Able-Bodied Athlete

Electrodes AE-131, NeuroDyne Medical, USA), the skin was shaved, abraded and washed with alcohol. The electrodes (11 mm contact diameter and a 2 cm center-to-center distance) were placed along the presumed direction of the underlying muscle fiber according to the recommendations by SENIAM ( Hermens et al., 2000 ). The EMG signals were sampled at a rate of 1000 Hz. Signals were band pass filtered with a cut off frequency of 8 and 450 Hz, after which the root-mean-square (RMS) was calculated. All the electrodes were located on the right side of the participant, regardless of

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Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

available for possible talent identification, several may be considered as inherited traits. These traits include obviously aspects of body size and proportions, maturity onset and the type of muscle fiber (e.g. fast or slow). Several genetic polymorphisms and profiles have been suggested to promote athletic excellence in endurance ( Ben-Zaken et al., 2013 ; Ruiz et al, 2009 ; Williams and Folland, 2008 ) and power sports ( Ben-Zaken et al., 2013 ; Ruiz et al., 2010 ). However, whether genetic polymorphisms that affect the athlete’s ability to tolerate training loads

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A Rapidly-Incremented Tethered-Swimming Test for Defining Domain-Specific Training Zones

, indeed, there are drawbacks with such an approach. For example, lengthy stage duration results in a prolonged overall test (e.g., ≥ 12 minutes) that might prevent the attainment of V . $\mathop{\text V}\limits^. $ O 2 max upon exhaustion ( Astorino et al., 2004 ; Yoon et al., 2007 ). Furthermore, during a slowly-incremented test (e.g., stage duration ≥ 3 minutes), non-invasive identification of LT via gas exchange/ventilatory changes corresponding to the non-metabolic production of CO 2 is complicated by the fact that V . $\mathop{\text V}\limits^. $ E

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Baseline Mechanical and Neuromuscular Profile of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscles in Professional Soccer Players at the Start of the Pre-Season

; Valenčič and Djordjevič, 2001 ; Valenčič et al., 2001 ). TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force with different strength training protocols ( de Paula et al., 2015 ; Zubac and Šimunič, 2016 ) and TMG can discriminate de “athlete-type” using indicators moderately correlated with explosive lower body performance ( Loturco et al., 2015 ). TMG can provide important information about the type of muscle fibre ( Dahmane et al., 2005 , 2006 ; Šimunič et al., 2011 ),muscle tone ( Pišot et al., 2008 ), muscle fatigue ( de Paula et al., 2015 ; García

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The Influence of Verbal Instruction on Measurement Reliability and Explosive Neuromuscular Performance of the Knee Extensors

-electrode impedance below 2 kΩ. The EMG signals were collected by a pair of adhesive bipolar surface electrodes (FIAB, Florence, Italy) attached to the dominant leg. The electrodes were fixed lengthwise on the skin and parallel to the direction of the muscle fibers at an inter-electrode distance of 20 mm. The electrodes were placed at approximately 2/3 of the distance between the anterior superior iliac spin and the lateral aspect of the patella for the vastus lateralis, at approximately 4/5 of the distance between the medial gap of the knee joint and the anterior superior iliac

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Reproducibility of the Evolution of Stride Biomechanics During Exhaustive Runs

90% of the age-predicted maximum (i.e. 220 - age) and identification of a VO 2max plateau (< 150 ml/min increase despite a further velocity increase). In all tests two of the three criteria were met. MAS was defined as the lowest speed that elicited VO 2max and was used in the next three sessions, which were carried out 3 to 15 days later, as shown in Figure 1 . Figure 1 Study design Each session consisted of running to exhaustion on an equivalent treadmill with a 1% gradient. The running speed was set at 90% of the individual’s MAS (90% MAS

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