is the second most common type of cancer in the male population. Radiation therapy, however, causes a) injury to endothelial cells and smooth muscle fibers, b) rupture of smaller vessels in the area of the prostate and penis, c) subsequent vascular stenosis and arterial insufficiency, d) reduction of the cavernous nerve kinetic response, e) damage to peripheral nerve fibers, eventually leading to erectile dysfunction.
Aim : To search for and summarize the therapeutic options for radiation-induced erectile dysfunction in prostate cancer patients, with a view to
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6. Diaz-Ramos A, Roig-Borrellas A, Garcia-Melero A, Lopez-Alemany R. Alpha-enolase, a multifunctional protein: its role on pathophysiological situations. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012; 2012: 156795.
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Güleser Saylam, Ömer Bayır, Salih Sinan Gültekin, Ferda Alparslan Pınarlı, Ünsal Han, Mehmet Hakan Korkmaz, Mehmet Eser Sancaktar, İlkan Tatar, Mustafa Fevzi Sargon and Emel Çadallı Tatar
Electron microscopy findings
TEM demonstrated cellular damage and fibrosis ( Figure 2C - D ). Intercellular edema and intracellular vacuolization showed cellular damage.
Figure 2 The figure (magnification × 5000) demonstrates the findings of electron microscopy at months 1 and 6. ( A and B ). Normal salivary gland samples of the control group. A and D . Intracellular vacuoles and intercellular edema related to radioiodine in Group 1. E and F . We observed intracellular vacuoles, intercellular edema, nucleus of fibroblast and collagen fibers (fibrosis) at 1
Peter Popovic, Borut Stabuc, Rado Jansa and Manca Garbajs
superselective TACE, proper identification of the tumor feeding arteries and detection of the target tumor is crucial. 11 , 12 , 14 However, angiography frequently cannot identify HCC lesions because of their small size or decreased hypervascularity. This often results in lobar or segmental TACE of relatively large liver areas, and in turn to lower rate of tumor response and potential increase in adverse events due to high repetition of TACE. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a novel technique that is increasingly used during TACE for inoperable HCC. 15 - 20 This imaging technique uses
, but it is also important to provide the diagnosis and prevent symptoms of the mass effect. 11 In addition to microsurgery, several new techniques are used in brain tumour surgery, such as frameless, image-guided neuronavigation, preoperative functional MRI, fiber tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation, intraoperative ultrasound and MRI, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (including direct cortical stimulation), fluorescence-guided removal of malignant gliomas, stereotactic needle biopsy, neuroendoscopy, awake surgery and brachytherapy. These novel