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Regulation of Cough by Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Airway Sensory Nerves

. Nassenstein C, Taylor-Clark TE, Myers AC, Ru F, Nandigama R, Bettner W, Undem BJ. Phenotypic distinctions between neural crest and placodal derived vagal C-fibres in mouse lungs. J Physiol 2010; 588 (Pt 23): 4769-4783. 8. Hodes R. Linear relationship between fiber diameter and velocity of conduction in giant axon of squid. J Neurophysiol 1953; 16 (2): 145-154. 9. Canning BJ, Undem BJ. Evidence that distinct neural pathways mediate parasympathetic contractions and relaxations of guinea-pig trachealis. J Physiol 1993; 471: 25-40. 10. Canning BJ, Mazzone SB

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Histamine and its Effects Mediated via H3 Receptor – Potential Clinical Applications of H3 Antagonists

, Erlander MG. Cloning and Functional Expression of the Human Histamine H3 Receptor Mol Pharmacol 1999; 55: 1101-1107. 40. Bongers G, Bakker RA, Leurs R. Molecular aspects of the histamine H3 receptor. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73: 1195-1204. 41. Drutel G, Peitsaro N, Karlstedt K, Wieland K, Smit MJ, Timmerman H, Panula P, Leurs R. Identification of rat H3 receptor isoforms with different brain expression and signaling properties. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 59: 1-8. 42. Tardivel-Lacombe J, Rouleau A, Héron A, Morisset S, Pillot C

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Podocyturia: What is in a name?

Abstract

The podocyte is a highly differentiated cell located in the outer space of the glomerular basement membrane that deals with many different functions. This phylogenetically preserved cell that is responsible for the virtually absence of proteins in the urine lacks of the capacity to divide under normal conditions. When podocytes receive molecular insults, which normally occur during stress conditions as glomerulonephritis, hyperfiltration or metabolic disturbances, they adapt to the new situation by contracting their actin fibers. This adaptive behavior puts at risk the quality of the plasmatic filtration due to the denudation of the glomerular basement membrane, the potential mesangial inflammation and the appearance of proteinuria; podocytes run the risk of detachment from the basement membrane due to a decrease in the adherence to the surrounding matrix after contraction, a process called foot processes effacement. Podocytes change their shape and under constant mechanical stress they finally detach, rendering the glomerular basement membrane unprotected unless other contiguous podocytes are capable of covering the surface. However, these still anchored podocytes are generally also under the same stress situation and follow the same pathway. Podocyturia refers to the presence of these differentiated cells in the urinary sediment. Noteworthy, the podocytes that are encountered in the urine are viable despite the glomerular hostile environment and the urinary acidity. Podocyturia can precede proteinuria and can aggravate it. Therefore, in diseases that can threaten the glomerular normal environment, the presence and the quantification of urinary podocytes can be of remarkable relevance, as it can herald or accompany the appearance of proteinuria, and could offer another view to the interpretation and clinical approach and outcome of proteinuria. However, its identification needs a wide-spread training among biochemists and technicians, as well as commercially available kits.

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Bronchial wash Gene Xpert MTB/RIF in lower lung field tuberculosis: Sensitive, superior, and rapid in comparison with conventional diagnostic techniques

–8 weeks. Although smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is rapid and inexpensive, it has poor sensitivity and a poor positive predictive value (PPV). Thus, rapid identification, which is essential for earlier treatment initiation, improved patient outcomes, and more effective public health interventions, relies on nucleic acid amplification techniques. The Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a novel integrated diagnostic device that performs sample processing and heminested real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in a single hands-free step for the diagnosis

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