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Podocyturia: What is in a name?

Abstract

The podocyte is a highly differentiated cell located in the outer space of the glomerular basement membrane that deals with many different functions. This phylogenetically preserved cell that is responsible for the virtually absence of proteins in the urine lacks of the capacity to divide under normal conditions. When podocytes receive molecular insults, which normally occur during stress conditions as glomerulonephritis, hyperfiltration or metabolic disturbances, they adapt to the new situation by contracting their actin fibers. This adaptive behavior puts at risk the quality of the plasmatic filtration due to the denudation of the glomerular basement membrane, the potential mesangial inflammation and the appearance of proteinuria; podocytes run the risk of detachment from the basement membrane due to a decrease in the adherence to the surrounding matrix after contraction, a process called foot processes effacement. Podocytes change their shape and under constant mechanical stress they finally detach, rendering the glomerular basement membrane unprotected unless other contiguous podocytes are capable of covering the surface. However, these still anchored podocytes are generally also under the same stress situation and follow the same pathway. Podocyturia refers to the presence of these differentiated cells in the urinary sediment. Noteworthy, the podocytes that are encountered in the urine are viable despite the glomerular hostile environment and the urinary acidity. Podocyturia can precede proteinuria and can aggravate it. Therefore, in diseases that can threaten the glomerular normal environment, the presence and the quantification of urinary podocytes can be of remarkable relevance, as it can herald or accompany the appearance of proteinuria, and could offer another view to the interpretation and clinical approach and outcome of proteinuria. However, its identification needs a wide-spread training among biochemists and technicians, as well as commercially available kits.

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Molecular mechanisms involved in physical exercise and factors that may influence them. particularities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Henderson, Walter C Soeller, Michael Gibbs E, David E James and James D. Best. Identification of a novel glucose transporter-like protein-GLUT-12. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology, vol. 282 (3), E733-E738, 2002. 11. Gaster M, Poulsen P, Handberg A, Schroder HD, Beck-Nielsen H. Direct evidence of fiber typedependent GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab May; 278(5): E910-6, 2000. 12. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. 14th Edition, Section II, Chapter 14, Biology of scheletal muscle , pg. 227

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The Effect of Tempeh Gembus Variations to Serum Levels of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) and Serum Levels of Fibrinogen of Sprague Dawley Rats with Aterogenic Diet

. Sulchan M, Nur E . Nilai Gizi dan Komposisi Asam Amino Tempe Gembus serta Pengaruhnyaterhadap Pertumbuhan Tikus. Maj Kedokt Indon 57(3), 2007. 9. Kim JH, Jia Y, Lee JG, et al. Hypolipidemic and antiinflammation activities of fermented soybean fibers from meju in C57BL/6 J Mice. Phytother Res 28: 13553-41, 2014. 10. Kone OH. The Combined effects of genistein and daidzein on adipocyte differentiation 26, 2014 11. Muka T . Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Serum C-Reactive Protein. Am J Epidemiol 181(11): 846–856, 2015. 12. Bakhtiary A Yassin

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Bronchial wash Gene Xpert MTB/RIF in lower lung field tuberculosis: Sensitive, superior, and rapid in comparison with conventional diagnostic techniques

–8 weeks. Although smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is rapid and inexpensive, it has poor sensitivity and a poor positive predictive value (PPV). Thus, rapid identification, which is essential for earlier treatment initiation, improved patient outcomes, and more effective public health interventions, relies on nucleic acid amplification techniques. The Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a novel integrated diagnostic device that performs sample processing and heminested real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in a single hands-free step for the diagnosis

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c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after a single treatment with a typical haloperidol and nine atypical antipsychotics: a pilot study

. Beaulieu J, Drolet G, Chanpagne D. Enkephalin innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: Distribution of fibers and origins of input. J Chem Neuroanat 10, 79–92, 1996. Blake NG, Johnson MR, Eckland DJA, Foster OJF, Lightman SL. Effect of food deprivation and altered thyroid status on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in the rat. J Endocrinol 133, 183–188, 1992. Ceccatelli S, Eriksson M, Hokfelt T. Distribution and coexistence of corticotropin-releasing factor-, neurotensin-, enkephalin-, cholecystokinin-, galanin- and vasoactive

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Periaqueductal gray and emotions: the complexity of the problem and the light at the end of the tunnel, the magnetic resonance imaging

NS. The periaqueductal gray and its potential role in maternal behavior inhibition in response to predatory threats. Behav Brain Res 209, 226-233, 2010. Swanson LW, McKellar S. The distribution of oxytocin- and neurophysin-stained fibers in the spinal cord of the rat and monkey. J Comp Neurol 188, 87-106, 1979. Takasaki A, Hui M, Sasaki M. Is the periaqueductal gray an essential relay center for the micturition reflex pathway in the cat? Brain Res 1317, 108-115, 2010. Tasker RR. Identification of pain processing

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