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The podocyte is a highly differentiated cell located in the outer space of the glomerular basement
membrane that deals with many different functions. This phylogenetically preserved cell that is
responsible for the virtually absence of proteins in the urine lacks of the capacity to divide under
normal conditions. When podocytes receive molecular insults, which normally occur during stress
conditions as glomerulonephritis, hyperfiltration or metabolic disturbances, they adapt to the new
situation by contracting their actin fibers. This adaptive behavior puts at risk the quality of the
plasmatic filtration due to the denudation of the glomerular basement membrane, the potential
mesangial inflammation and the appearance of proteinuria; podocytes run the risk of detachment
from the basement membrane due to a decrease in the adherence to the surrounding matrix
after contraction, a process called foot processes effacement. Podocytes change their shape
and under constant mechanical stress they finally detach, rendering the glomerular basement
membrane unprotected unless other contiguous podocytes are capable of covering the surface.
However, these still anchored podocytes are generally also under the same stress situation and
follow the same pathway. Podocyturia refers to the presence of these differentiated cells in the
urinary sediment. Noteworthy, the podocytes that are encountered in the urine are viable despite
the glomerular hostile environment and the urinary acidity. Podocyturia can precede proteinuria
and can aggravate it. Therefore, in diseases that can threaten the glomerular normal environment,
the presence and the quantification of urinary podocytes can be of remarkable relevance, as
it can herald or accompany the appearance of proteinuria, and could offer another view to the
interpretation and clinical approach and outcome of proteinuria. However, its identification needs
a wide-spread training among biochemists and technicians, as well as commercially available kits.
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. Sulchan M, Nur E . Nilai Gizi dan Komposisi Asam Amino Tempe Gembus serta Pengaruhnyaterhadap Pertumbuhan Tikus. Maj Kedokt Indon 57(3), 2007.
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11. Muka T . Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Serum C-Reactive Protein. Am J Epidemiol 181(11): 846–856, 2015.
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–8 weeks. Although smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is rapid and inexpensive, it has poor sensitivity and a poor positive predictive value (PPV). Thus, rapid identification, which is essential for earlier treatment initiation, improved patient outcomes, and more effective public health interventions, relies on nucleic acid amplification techniques. The Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a novel integrated diagnostic device that performs sample processing and heminested real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in a single hands-free step for the diagnosis
Lehel Bordi, István Kovács, Balázs Bajka, Ciprian Blendea, Nora Rat, Annabell Benedek, Zsuzsanna Suciu and Imre Benedek
Ischemic Heart Disease with Cardiac MR Imaging. Radiol Clin North Am . 2015;53:369-395.
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