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duration of visits to the MR feeder and decreased their milk consumption when sick, while calves on lower allowances decreased the duration of their visits at the MR feeder when sick ( Borderas et al ., 2009 ). Therefore, changes in net energy (Unité Fourragère Lait (UFL)) consumption, MR consumption, concentrate consumption, number of visits to the feeder and drinking speed may be related to the incidence of disease. Consequently, data from electronic calf feeders have the potential to highlight sick calves that require treatment. Through early identification of sick
the muscle fibres. When the cores reached room temperature (approximately 20°C), they were sheared perpendicular to the muscle fibre orientation using the Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear blade attached to an Instron universal testing machine [Model 5543, Instron (UK) Ltd., High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK] with a 500 N load cell using a cross-head speed of 50 mm/min. The average maximum shear force (WBSF) was calculated by excluding the two extreme values. WB slope was recorded from a line drawn from 20% to 80% of the WBSF curve and expressed as megapascals (Mpa), and
% alcohol for identification.
Species identification of thrips was made using the following: an insect collection provided by Prof. Kiran Donchev; bug species collection provided by Nikolay Simov (Ph.D.); Coleoptera species collection provided by Assoc. Prof. Rumyana Koleva; Diptera collection provided by Prof. Venelin Beshovski; Cicadelidae collection provided by Assoc. Prof. Venelin Pelov.
The classification of insect species was made as follows: * – dominant species with 15% representation; ** – sub-dominant (from 5% to 15%); *** – secondary (1
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