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Miika Tervonen, Saara Pellander and Nira Yuval-Davis

. 1114-1131, DOI:10.1080/01419870.2017.1267378. Thomsen, TL, Jørgensen, MB, Meret, S, Hviid, K & Stenum, H (eds.) 2010, Irregular Migration in a Scandinavian Perspective , Shaker Publishing, Maastricht. Triandafyllidou, A 2010, ‘Irregular migration in Europe in the early 21st century’, in Irregular Migration in Europe . Myths and Realities , ed. A Triandafyllidou, Ashgate, Cheltenham, pp.1-22. Triandafyllidou, A & Ambrosini, M 2011, ‘Irregular immigration control in Italy and Greece: strong fencing and weak gate-keeping serving the labour market

Open access

Sladjana Mijatović


The previous studies on the gymnastic societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia did not seriously deal with the types of physical exercise practiced therein. It may be assumed that is due to a lack of the information preserved thereabout.

For these reasons, in this study we searched for the findings about the types of physical exercise applied in the private training schools where some skills (fencing, swimming, archery, horse riding) were learnt and practiced, then in the societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) as well as in the chivalrous societies. The aim of this study was to determine the types and forms of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools, societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia. The historical method was applied in this paper.

In this paper, we presented the results, i.e. the types of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools (Schools of Fencing, Steva Todorović’s School of Painting, Askanius Sedlmayer’s School of Gymnastics), societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies (Belgrade Society for Gymnastics and Fighting, Belgrade Gymnastic Society “Sokol”, Civil Gymnastic Society “Dušan Silni”, Sokol societies).

Based on the comparative analysis of the types of the apparatuses used and the exercise methods applied it has been determined that private schools mainly implemented the Turner system using most of Jahn’s Turner apparatuses. However, in the societies for physical exercising, in addition to the Turner exercise method, the Swedish system of physical exercise was partially applied as well.

Upon the appearance and acceptance of the Sokol idea, the application of the Sokol training method also started in the established Sokol societies, and soon afterwards in the army, and primary and secondary schools as well.

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Vladan Vukašinović, Dragan Strelić, Saša Vajić and Violeta Šiljak


Observing the development of physical training classes of the Army throughout history, from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Armed Forces of today, it can be said that, in addition to other program segments, gymnastics was the fundamental factor of physical exercise in the overall process of practical and military training. This development was accompanied by frequent changes in the realization of physical training (program contents, number of hours, methodical procedure, etc.), which again depended on the needs of the army, in other words, on the objective of the training - which was aimed at achieving optimal physical abilities for the performance of military duties in all circumstances. The first written facts about the use of gymnastics in the Army of the Principality of Serbia originate from the period of the founding of the Artillery School (in 1850, a predecessor of the Military Academy), where the basis of physical training consisted of the following contents: fighting, gymnastics, swimming, fencing and riding. A little later, in 1867, within the physical training, gymnastic exercises were performed and were the forerunners of today's morning workout, which is even today an integral part of the training of members of the Army of Serbia. The problem of this research work relates to the implementation of the development of gymnastics in the process of training from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Army.

The aim of this paper is to indicate the permanent implementation of the contents of gymnastics in the educational process of military structures as well as temporary changes according to the specific requirements of the upgrading of military and professional-specialized skills of military personnel in view of research of relevant materials and data collected. A historical method was used in this study. Research results show the importance and role of gymnastics as a basis of physical exercise for the improvement of the physical abilities of soldiers as the basic element of combat readiness.

Open access

Dorota Murzyn

Social Fund; – member state level – the level of the European Regional Development Fund [ERDF] programme with urban-related investment priorities, ring-fencing 5% of funding; – member state level – implementation level, with the involvement of Integrated Territorial Investments as instruments for bottom-up urban actions and the involvement of Community – led local development in urban areas; – local level – project level, where cities have the opportunity to cooperate across borders. During the 2007–2013 programming period

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Krystyna Ilmurzyńska

Ursynów managed the estate on its own and actually played the role of local government ( Rogiński 2017 : 42). At the beginning the residents’ activity focused on the organisation of the flats followed by rearrangement balconies and verandas, as well as fencing and planting small gardens. Garden fences that became the borders between private and public space were built informally by individuals ( Pańkow 2016 : 315) and tolerated by the cooperative. Spatial activity focused on greenery as some community gardens were established within the pedestrian path areas

Open access

Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska

’ association. The above examples demonstrate not only the fomenting of tensions and group conflicts, but also the emergence, based upon shared interests of collective entities, of something akin to ‘parkinghoods’, which not only recognise each other internally and integrate in the course of everyday practices, but also develop the ability to recognise and ‘mark’ outside parkers. The most frequent consequence of the emergence of this type of ‘group parking interests’ is fencing of common spaces. An increasingly popular practice is putting up fences, barriers and gates